The Cognātarium

a– {not, without}: abiotic, abulia, acarpous, acatalectic, achromatic, adactylous, adamant, adynamia, afebrile, agamete, agamogenesis, ageratum, agnosia, agnostic, agrapha, ahistoric, amaranth, amaze, amethyst, ametropia, amianthus, amitosis, amnesia, amoral, amorphous, amusia, amylum, amyotonia, amyotrophic, aneroid, apathy, aphasia, aphonia, aphotic, aplastic, apnea, apraxia, apterous, apteryx, apyretic, aseptic, asexual, asphyxiate, aspirin, astatine, asylum, asymmetrical, asymptote, ataraxia, ataxia, atheist, atom, atonal, azote, azygous same as an–4 || From Gr a–, an– : not, without From IE *ne– : not

aard– {earth}: aardvark, aardwolf || From Afrik. From Du aarde : earth; akin to Ger erde, erd– : earth From IE *er– : earth, ground

ab–1 {father}: abba, abbacy, abbatial, abbess, abbey, abbot, Abigail, Abner, Abraham, Absalom Fr. abbé || From L From Gr From Aram abba : father

ab–2, abs– {indicates removal: off, away from}: abdicate, abduct, aberration, abhor, ab initio, abject, abjure, ablate, ablative, ablaut, ablution, abnegate, abnormal, abolish, abomasum, abominate, aborigine, abort, abound, ab ovo, abrade, abrogate, abrupt, abscess, abscissa, abscond, absent, absolute, absolve, absorb, abstain, abstemious, abstract, abstruse, absurd, abundant, abuse for assimilated forms see Appendix A compare ad–2 || From L ab– : away, off, from off, down

abl– {to manage, to have skill}: able, ability, disability, memorabilia as a suffix, often –ible or –ibility same as habil– || From ME From OFr hable, habile From L habilis : easily managed, handy From habēre (pp. habitum) : to have, to hold To freq. habito : to inhabit, to dwell; habitus : condition, habit, bearing

abs– see ab–2

ac– {point, needle, sharp}: acerate (needle-shaped), acerose, acicula, acid, acidophilus, aciform, acme, acne more at acerb–, acet–, acr–, acu– see also acanth–, acro–, gar–3, oxy– || From L acuere (pp. acūtum) : to sharpen to a point To acūmen : sharp point; acus : needle; ācer, ācris : sharp, cutting; acerbus : bitter, harsh; acidus : sharp, sour; ācrimōnia : sharpness, keenness From IE *ak– : sharp

acanth– {thorn}: acanthoid, acanthus, coelacanth, pyracantha, tragacanth see also ac– || From Gr akantha : thorn From akē : a point From IE *ak– : sharp

acar– {an order of arachnids that includes ticks and mites}: acariasis, acarid, acaroid, acarology || From Gr akari : mite From akarēs : tiny, too small to cut From a– : not + keirein : to cut

acerb– {sharp, bitter}: acerb, acerbate, exacerbate part of ac– || From L acerbus : bitter, sour To acerbare : to make bitter, to aggravate From IE *ak– : sharp

acet– {vinegar}: acetabulum, acetaldehyde, acetate, acetic, acetify, acetone, acetous, acetum, acetyl, acetylene, acetylsalicylic part of ac– || From L acētum : vinegar From root ac– : sharp, point To acus : needle From IE *ak– : sharp

acr– {sharp}: acrid, acridine, acriflavine, acrimony, acrolein, acrylic part of ac– || From L ācris, fem. of ācer : sharp, cutting From IE *ak– : sharp

acro– {point, extremity, topmost, height}: acrobat, acrocarpous, acrocephaly, acrogen, acrolein, acrolith, acromegaly, acromion, acronym, acropetal, acrophobia, acropolis, acrospire, acrostic see also ac– || From Gr akros : at the point, end, or top From IE *ak– : sharp

act– {to do}: act, action, activate, active, activist, activity, actor, actress, actual, actuary, actuate, counteract, deactivate, enact, exact (to demand), exact (precise), hyperactive, inaction, interact, react, reaction, reactionary, redact, retroactive, surfactant, transaction same as ag–, ig– || From L actus : a doing or moving From agere (pp. actum) : to do, to set in motion, to drive To actio (gen. actiōnis) : action, doing; actor : doer, driver

actin– {ray}: actinal, actinide, actiniform, actinism, actinium, actinoid, actinology, actinometer, actinomorphic, actinomycin, actinomycosis, protactinium || From Gr aktis (gen. aktinos) : ray

acu– {needle, sharp}: acuate, acuity, aculeate, acumen, acuminate, acupuncture, acute part of ac– || From L acus : needle From stem ac– : point, sharp To acuēre (pp. acūtum) : to sharpen to a point; acūmen : sharp point From IE *ak– : sharp

ad–1 {a group consisting of the number given}: monad, duad, dyad, triad, tetrad, pentad, hexad, hebdomad, heptad, octad, ennead, decade, chiliad, Olympiad || From Gr & L genitive-forming suffix; as in LL monas : one (gen. monadis)

ad–2 {indicates motion towards or position near: to, towards, at, near}: adage, adapt, ad astra per aspera, add (→dition–), addict, address, adept, adequate, adhere, ad hoc, ad infinitum, adit, adjacent, adjective, adjourn, adjunct, adjust, adjutant, ad-lib, administer, admire, admit, admonish, ad nauseam, adolescent, adopt, adore, adorn, adrenalin, adsorb, adult, adulterate, advance, advent, adventure, adverb, adversary, advertise, advise, advocate see also Appendix A compare ab–2 in words of Latin origin, ad– assimilates to ac– before c or q (accuse, acquit), af– before f (affirm), ag– before g (aggregrate), al– before l (alleviate), an– before n (annul), ap– before p (approve), ar– before r (arrest), as– before s (assimilate), at– before t (attain), and a– before sc, sp, or st (ascend, aspire, astringent). || From L ad– : to, toward, near

add– {to give more, to add}: add, addend, addendum, additament, addition, additional, additive comb. of ad–2 + dition– || From L addere (pp. additum) : to give to, to bring to, to add From ad– : to + –dere (in comb.) From dare : to give; To additio : an adding, a giving to

adel– {noble}: Adelaide, Adelbert, Adele, Adeline Adolf same as al–2, ethel– || From OHG adal : nobility

adelph– {brother}: diadelphous, monadelphous, Philadelphia, polyadelphous || From Gr adelphos : brother From a– (copulative) + delphys : womb

aden– {gland}: adenine, adenitis, adenocarcinoma, adenoid, adenoma, adenovirus || From Gr adēn : gland

adip– {fat}: adipocere, adipose || From L adeps (gen. adipis) : fat From ult. Gr aleipha : fat

Adon– {lord}: Adonai, Adonia, Adonis || From Heb Adonai : my lord From Sem adōn, adun : lord

adulter– {to pollute, to defile}: adulterate, adulterer, adulterine, adultery, unadulterated comb. of ad–2 + altr– || From L adulterare : to commit adultery, to defile, to corrupt From ad– : to, toward + alter : other, another

aeol– {the wind}: aeolian, Aeolus || From Gr Aeolus : god of the winds From aiolos quick, changeable

aer– {air}: aerate, aerial, aerobatics, aerobe, aerobic, aerodynamic, aeronautics, aeronomy, aeroplane, aerosol, aerospace, anaerobic unrelated: aerie same as ari– || From L āēr : air

aesth– see esth–

aft– {behind}: abaft, aft, after, afterward || From ME afte From OE æftan

ag– {to do, to drive}: agency, agenda, agent, agile, agitate, ambage, coagulate, reagent, stratagem cogent, cogitate same as act–, ig– see also purg– || From L agere : to set in motion, to drive To freq. agitare : to drive about, to put in constant motion

agap– {love}: agapanthus, agape (love), agape (love feast) || From LGr agapē From Gr agapan : to greet with affection, to love

agog– {to lead}: anagoge, demagogue, emmenagogue, galactagogue, hypnagogic, pedagogue, mystagogue, synagogue || From Gr agōgos : leader From agein : to lead

agon– {contest, struggle}: agon, agonize, agony, antagonist, antagonize, deuteragonist, protagonist || From Gr agōn : assembly, contest From agein : to lead •–agonist From Gr agōnistēs : actor From agōnizesthai : to contend for a prize From agōn

agor– {assembly, place of assembly, to speak in assembly}: agora, agoraphobia, phantasmagoria same as egor– || From Gr agoreuein From ēgor : to speak in public From agor : marketplace, assembly

agr– {field}: see agri–, agro–

agra– {seizure}: pellagra, podagra || From Gr agra : seizure

agr(i)– {field, soil, land, property}: agrarian, agrestal, agrestic, agri–, agribusiness, agriculture see also agro– || From L ager (gen. agri) From field, land To agrārius : of land, of the division of public land; agrestis : of the fields or country, rustic; agricola : tiller of the fields, farmer; agrīcultura : tilling the fields, agriculture; From IE *agro– : field To Gr agros : field

agr(o)– {field}: agriology, agro–, agrobiology, agrochemical, agronomics, agrostology see also agri– || From Gr agros : field From IE *agro– : field To L ager : field

ailur– {cat}: ailuromancy, ailurophile, ailurophobia || From Gr ailouros : cat

al–1 see ali–, allelo–, allo–, altr– see also allax–

al–2 {noble}: Albert, Alice, Alicia, Alison, Alphonse, Alvin unrelated: Alfred, Alan, Allen same as adel–, ethel– || From OHG adal : nobility

al–3 {to nourish, to nurture, to grow}: coalesce, coalition, alible, altricial, alumnus see also alim–, alma–, prol– || From L alere : to rear, to feed, to nourish To altor (fem. altrix) : one who nourishes

al–4 {wing}: ala, alar, alary, alate, aliform, aliped, alula aileron || From L āla : wing

alb– {white}: alb, albedo, albescent, albinism, albino, album, albumen, albumin, terra alba auburn compare negr– || From L albus : white To album : white color; albere : to be white

ald–, old– {power, to rule}: Arnold, Donald, Gerald, Harold, herald, Reginald, Reynold, Ronald same as wald– || From Gmc root wealdan or waldan From to be strong, to have power, to rule

aleator– {game of dice, game of chance, chance, uncertainty}: aleatoric, aleatory || From L āleātorius : of gambling From āleātor : gambler From ālea : chance, game of dice, dice From

alex– {to defend}: Alexander, alexipharmic, Alexis, phytoalexin Alec || From Gr alexein : to defend

alg–1 {pain}: algolagnia, algophobia, analgesia, cardialgia, causalgia, neuralgia, nostalgia, otalgia || From Gr algos : pain

alg–2 {algae}: algae, algicide, algin, alginate, alginic, algology || From L alga : seaweed From

ali– {other}: alias, alibi, alien, alienate, aliquant, aliquot, aliunde, inter alia part of al–1 || From L alius : other, another, different To aliēnus : that which belongs to another To aliēnātio : transference or alientation of property, separation between persons

alim– {to feed, to nurture}: aliment, alimentary, alimentation, alimony alumnus see also al–3, alma– || From L alere : to nourish, to support To alimentum : food, maintenance To alimentārius : relating to food or the distribution of food; alimonia : nourishment; alumnus (fem. alumna) : a nursling, a foster child

alk(al)– {alkali}: alkalescent, alkali, alkalimeter, alkaline, alkaloid, alkalosis, alkene, alkyd, alkyl || From ME alkaly From Ar al-qily for al-qili : ashes From qalai : to roast in a pan

allanto– {sausage, sausage-shaped}: allantoic, allantoid, allantois see also alli– || From ModL From Gr allantoeidēs : sausage-shaped From allas : sausage From prob. dial. allē : garlic From Oscan allo : garlicky sausage From L ālium or allium : garlic

allax– {to change, other}: morphallaxis, parallax see also allo– || From Gr allaxis : an exchange From allassein : to change, to exchange From allos : other

allel– {of one another}: allele, allelomorph, allelopathy, parallel see also allo– || From Gr allēlos : one another From allos : other

alli– {garlic}: alliaceous, allicin, allium allyl see also allanto– || From L allium, ālium : garlic

all(o)– {other}: allegory, allergy, allogamy, allograph, allomorph, allonym, allopathy, allophone, allosaurus, allotropy, hypoallergenic part of al–1 see also allax–, allel– compare homeo– || From Gr allos : other

alma– {nurturing, cherishing, fostering}: Alma, alma mater see also al–3, alim– || From L almus (fem. alma) : nourishing, kind From alere : to nourish, to support, to rear

alopia– {loss of vision, blindness}: hemeralopia, nyctalopia see also opia–, op–2 || From Gr –alōps : blindness From alaos : blind + ōps : eye

alp– {the Alps}: alpenglow, alpenhorn, alpenstock, alpestrine, alpine, Alps || From L Alpes : the Alps

alpha– {the Greek letter alpha: Α}: alpha, alphabet, alphanumeric || From Gr alpha From Sem (as in Heb alef)

alt– {high}: altar, altimeter, altitude, alto, altocumulus, contralto, exalt see also haut– compare bas–2 Sp. alta || From L altus : high To altitūdo : height

altr– {other}: alter, altercation, alter ego, alternate, alternative, alternator, altruism, subaltern part of al–1 more at adulter– || From L alter : other, one of two, the other To altercātio : a dispute; alternare : to one thing then another, to alternate

alum– {alum, aluminum}: alum, alumina, aluminiferous, aluminum unrelated: alumnus || From L alumen (gen. aluminis) : alum

am–1 {love, friendship}: Amabel (Mabel), Amanda, amateur, amative, amiable, amicable, amicus curiae, amity, amoretto, amorous, amour-propre, Amy, enamor, inamorata, paramour enemy, inimical Span. amor Fr. amour It. amore || From L amare : to love To amīcus : friendly, friend; amābilis : amiable, lovable; amor : love, the object of love

am–2 {ammonia}: amatol, amide (→amid–), amine (→amin–), amitrol, ammine || From L ammoniacum From ammōniakon : gum resin From temple of Ammon (Amen) in Libya where the plants grew

am–3 {both, around}: amphora, amplexicaul, ampule, ampulla, amputate, amputee clipped form of ambi– or amph– same as an–3 || From L amb, ambi : on both sides, around & From Gr amphi– : around

amb– see ambi–

ambi–, amb– {both, around}: ambage, ambiance, ambidextrous, ambient, ambiguous, ambition, ambivalent, amboceptor more at ambl– see also amph– || From L amb–, ambi– : on both sides, around

ambl– {to go around, to walk}: amble, ambulance, ambulate, ambulatory, funambulist, perambulator, postamble, preamble, somnambulist part of ambi– || From L ambulare : to go back and forth, to walk about, to go, to travel To ambulātor : one who walks about

ambly– {dull}: amblygonite, amblyopia, Amblypgi || From Gr amblys : dull

ambro– {immortal}: ambrosia, ambrotype || From Gr ambrotos : immortal From a– : not + brotos : mortal

ameb– see amoeb–

amid– {ammonia compound}: amide, amidogen, amidol, cyanamid(e) part of am–2 || From (am)monia + ac(id)

amin– {ammonia}: amine, amino acid, amino, amphetamine, antihistamine, dopamine, scopolamine, vitamin part of am–2 || From ammonia

amnes– {to forget}: amnesia, anamnesis, amnesty, paramnesia see also mnem– || From Gr amnēsia : forgetfulness From a– : not + mimnēskein : to remember; akin to mnasthai : to remember

amnio– {amnion: the membrane holding a fetus}: amniocentesis, amniomancy, amnion, amniotic || From Gr amnion, dim. of amnos : lamb

amoeb–, ameb– {amoeba}: ameba, amebiasis, amebic, amoeba, amoebaean, amoebocyte || From ModL From Gr amoibē : change From ameibein : to change, to alter (amoeba “change” by fission) From

ampel– {vine}: ampelopsis || From ModL From Gr ampelos : vine From

amph– {both, around}: amphibian, amphibious, amphitheater see also ambi– || From Gr amphi– : around

ampl– {large, big enough}: ample, amplidyne, amplify, amplitude, preamplifier || From L amplus : large, spacious, ample To amplitūdo : breadth, size; amplificare : to enlarge

amplex– {to twine around, to wind around}: amplexicaul, amplexus || From L amplexus, pp. of amplectari : to twine around From am– for ambi– : around, both + plexus & –plexus (with prefixes) : braided, plaited From IE *plek– : to plait, to fold

amygdal– {almond}: amygdala, amygdalaceous, amygdale, amygdalin, amygdaloid || From L amygdala From Gr amygdalē : almond

amyl– {starch}: amyl, amylaceous, amylase, amylene, amylogen, amylolysis, amylum || From Gr amylon : starch From amylon (aleuron) : (meal) not ground at the mill From a– : not + mylē : mill

an–1 {one}: an, another, any a (article) same as on–1 || From OE an : one

an–2 {circle, ring}: anal, annelid, annular, annulet, annulus, anus || From L ānus : anus, hence: ring To dim. ānulus : finger ring, ring

an–3 {both, around}: ancipital, andante, anfractuous clipped form of ambi– same as am–3 || From L ambi– : both, around

an–4 {not, without}: anaerobic, analgesia, anarchy, anecdote, anechoic, anencephaly, anergy, anesthesia, anhedonia, anhydrous, anisometric, anodyne, anomaly, anonymous, anorexia, anosmia, anoxemia, anoxia, anuran, anuria, anurous same as a–, used before a vowel || From Gr a–, an– : not, without From IE *ne– : not

ana– {up, upward, back, backward, again, throughout, according to}: Anabaptist, Anabasis, anabolism, anachronism, anadem, anadromous, anagram, analects, analemma, analeptic, analogy, analyze, anapest, Anastasia, anathema, anatomy compare cata– || From Gr ana : up, on, again, apiece

andr– {man, male; and by extension: stamen, anther}: Alexander, Alexandra (Sandra), Andrea, Andrew, androgen, androgynous, android, androsphinx, androsterone, Cassandra, Leander, philander, polyandry compare gyn– || From Gr andros, gen. of anēr : man, male

anem– {wind}: anemochore, anemograph, Anemoi, anemology, anemometer, anemone, anemophilous see also anim– || From Gr anemos : wind To Anemoi : the gods of the four winds

ang–, anx– {tightness, distress, pain}: angina, anger, angry, anguish, anxiety, anxious Ger. Angst || From L angere : to squeeze, to press, to choke, to hurt, to distress, to torment, to make anxious To anxius : anxious, uneasy

angel– {messenger}: angel, Angela, angelica, Angelo, Angelus, archangel, evangelical, Evangeline, evangelist Englebert || From LL(Ec) angelus From Gr(Ec) angelos : messenger

angi(o)– {container, vessel}: angiogram, angiology, angioma, angiosperm, sporangium compare gymn– || From Gr angeion : case, capsule From angos : vessel

angl– {the Angles, a Germanic people who came to England, hence: England}: Angle, Anglican, Anglicize, Anglo, Anglophile, Anglo-Saxon England || From L Angli : Angles (a people living in Angle [Angul], Holstein) From angle : hook (so named because of its shape)

anim– {breath, life, soul}: animadversion, animal, animate, animism, animosity, animus, equanimity, inanimate, longanimity, magnanimous, pusillanimous, unanimous see also anem– || From L anima : life principle, soul; something breathing or blowing; breath of life, soul, spirit

anis– {anise}: anise, aniseed, anisette, anisole, hydroxyanisole || From L anisum From Gr anison : anise

anis(o)– {unequal}: aniseikonia, anisogamete, anisomerous, anisometric, anisometropia, anisotropic comb. of an–4 (not) and iso– (equal)

ankyl– {crooked, hence: a joint}: ankylosaur, ankylosis, ankylostomiasis || From Gr ankylos : crooked

ann– {year}: annals, anniversary, anno Domini, annual, annuity, per annum, superannuated Sp. año same as enn– || From L annus : year To annalis : lasting one year; anniversārius : recurring every year; the turning of the year; annuus : lasting for a year; returning ever year, annual

ant(e)– {before, preceding}: ante, antebellum, antecedent, antechamber, antedate, antediluvian, ante meridiem, anterior, antler, antrorse same as anti–1 compare post–2 see also Appendix B || From L ante : before, in front of

anth– {flower}: agapanthus, Anthea, anther, anthesis, anthocarpous, anthology, anthozoan, chrysanthemum, dianthus || From Gr anthos : flower

anthrac–, anthrax– {coal, burning coal, ulcer, carbuncle, pustule}: anthracene, anthracnose, Bacillus anthracis, anthracene, anthracite, anthracnose, anthrax || From L anthrax From Gr anthrax : virulent ulcer From (burning) coal, hence: ulcer, carbuncle To anthrakitis : a kind of coal From

anthrax– see anthrac–

anthrop– {Man, human}: anthropocentric, anthropoid, anthropology, anthropometric, anthropomorphic, anthropophagous, lycanthrope, misanthrope, philanthropist, Pithecanthropus, theanthropism || From Gr anthrōpos : man (human)

anti–1 {before, preceding}: antic, anticipate, antipasto, antiquate, antique, antiquity ancient same as ante– || From L anti– (in comb.) : before From ante– : before, in front of

ant(i)–2 {opposition}: antacid, antagonize, Antarctica, Antares, anthem, antiaircraft, antibiotic, antibody, antichrist, antidote, antifreeze, antihistamine, antimacassar, antimatter, antinomy, antipathy, antiperspirant, antipodes, anti-Semitic, antiseptic, antisocial, antithesis, antitoxin, antiwar, antonomasia, antonym compare pro– || From Gr anti– : opposite, before From anti– : against

anx– see ang–

aph– see apo–

api– {bee}: apian, apiary, apiculture, apitoxin, apivorous || From L apis : bee To apiārius : beekeeper

ap(o)–, aph– {off, off from, away, away from}: aperitif, aperture, aphelion, apheresis, aphorism, apocalypse, apocryphal, apogee, Apollyon, apology, apoplexy, aposematic, apostasy, apostle, apostrophe, apothecary, apothegm, apotheosis || From Gr apo : off, from

aps– {arch, to fasten}: apse, apsis, synapse, synapsis || From L apsis : an arch From Gr hapsis : a fastening From haptein : to fasten

apt– {to fit, to make fit}: adapt, apt, aptitude attitude, inept more at copul– || From L apere (pp. aptus) : to fit, to adapt From Gr haptein : to fasten

aqu(a)– {water}: aqua, aquacade, Aqualung™, aquamarine, aquarium, Aquarius, aquatic, aquatint, aqueduct, aqueous, aquifer see also eau– Span. agua || From L aqua : water

aquil– {eagle}: Aquila, aquilegia, aquiline || From L aquila : eagle To aquilīnus : of an eagle

arachn– {spider, arachnid}: Arachne, arachnid, arachnoid, arachnophobia Sp. araña Fr. araignée It. ragno || From Gr arachnē : spider From

arbitr– {judge, to use one’s judgment, to decide}: arbiter, arbitrage, arbitrary, arbitration || From L arbiter : a witness, a hearer, a judge From ad– : to + baetere : to go (one who goes to a place, a witness, a judge); To arbitrātus : choice, decision; arbitrārius : arbitrary, uncertain

arbor– {tree}: arbor (spindle, axle), arboraceous, arboreal, arboretum, arboriculture, arborvitae unrelated: arbor (shady bower) || From L arbor : tree

arc–1 {curve, bow}: arc, arcade, arch (structural), archer, archery || From ME ark From OFr arc From L arcus : bow, arch, arched or curved thing

arc–2 {enclosed, secret, hidden; a closed box, chest}: arcane, arcanum ark || From L arca : chest, box From arcēre : to enclose, to shut in; To arcānus : shut, closed, hidden, secret

arch–1 {beginning, earliest}: archaeology, archaic, archegonium, archetype, archive, menarche same as arch–2 || From ME arche– From OE arce- From L archi–, arch– From Gr archos : first, ruler

arch–2 {to be first, hence: to rule; ruler, chief}: anarchy, archangel, archbishop, archdiocese, archduke, archenemy, archfiend, archipelago, architect, diarchy, eparchy, gynarchy, hierarchy, matriarch, monarch, oligarchy, patriarch, symposiarch, tetrarch, triarchy same as arch–1 || From ME arche– From OE arce– From L archi–, arch– From Gr archos : first, ruler

arct– {a bear, northern}: Antarctica, arctic, Arcturus || From L Arctūrus From Gr Arktouros : the star Arcturus, the brightest star in the constellation Boötes, in the northern sky From arktos : bear + ouros : a guard, a watcher. Arcturus appears to be watching the constellations Ursa Major and Ursa Minor (Great Bear and Little Bear).

ard–1 {to burn}: aguardiente, ardent, ardor arson unrelated: arduous || From L ardens (gen ardentis), prp. of ardēre : to burn To ardor : flame, burning

ard–2 {[in Germanic names] hard, hardy, strong}: Bernard, Gerard, Leonard, Maynard, Reynard, Richard || From OFr From OHG hart : hard, strong

are– {open field}: area, areola || From L ārea : a level or open space, esp. in a town To dim. āreola : a little open space

aren– {sand, sandy place}: arena, arenaceous, arenicolous, arenite || From L arēna, harēna : sand, sandy place, an arena in a Roman amphitheater covered with sand, the scene of contention or struggle

argent– {silver}: argent, argentiferous, Argentina, argentine, argentite || From L argentum : silver

argill– {clay}: argillaceous, argillite || From L argilla : clay From Gr argos : white

ari– {air}: aria, ariose, arioso, malaria same as aer– || From It aria From L āēr : air

aristo– {best}: aristocracy, aristocrat, Aristophanes, Aristotle || From Gr aristos : best

arithm– {number}: arithmetic, logarithm algorithm || From Gr arithmein : to count From arithmos : number

arium– {a place for}: aquarium, caldarium, cinerarium, Cognātarium, columbarium, herbarium, leprosarium, planetarium, sanitarium, solarium, terrarium same as torium–, tory– || From L –ārium, neut. sing. of –ārius : a place for, or connected with

arm– {weapon}: alarm, arm, armada, armadillo, armament, armature, armed forces, armistice, armoire, armor, armorer, armory, army, disarm, firearm, gendarme unrelated: arm (body part) || From L arma : implements, weapons, arms To armare : to arm; armāmentārium : armory

art– {creative activity, art, skill, craft}: art, artifact, artifice, artificial, artisan, artist, artistry, artless, artwork, objet d’art same as ert– || From L artis, gen of ars : profession, art, skill, knowledge, cunning

arthr– {joint}: anarthria, arthritis, arthroplasty, arthropod see also articl– || From Gr arthron : joint From IE *ar(ə)– : to fit together

articl– {joint}: article, articulate, articulated see also arthr– || From L articulus, dim. of artus : joint From IE *ar(ə)– : to fit together

artio– {even (number)}: artiodactyl compare perisso– || From Gr artios : even

asc(o)– {bladder, bag}: aschelminth, ascites, asclepiadaceous, ascocarp, ascogonium, ascomycete, ascospore, ascus || From Gr †askos : wineskin, bladder

ase– {suffix for types of enzymes}: carbohydrase, lipase, nuclease, protease, transcriptase there are many enzymes using this suffix || From abstracted generic form

aspar– {asparagus}: asparagus, Aspartame™, aspartic acid || From L From Gr asparagos : asparagus

asper– {rough, to roughen}: ad astra per aspera, asper, asperity, exasperate || From L asper : rough To asperitās : roughness

asthen– {weakness}: see a– (not) + sthen– (strength)

astr– {star}: ad astra per aspera, aster, asterisk, asteroid, astral, astrogation, astrolabe, astrology, astronaut, astronomy, astrophysics, disaster Esther || From Gr astron : star To L astrum : star, constellation

ather– {grain, grainy matter}: atheroma, atherosclerosis || From Gr athēr : awn, chaff

athl– {contest}: athlete, athletic, decathlon, pentathlon || From Gr athlein : to contest for a prize From athlos : a contest & athlon : a prize

atlant– see atlas–

atlas–, atlant– {Atlas}: Atlanta, Atlantean, atlantes, Atlantic, Atlantis, Atlas, atlas || From Gr Atlas, a figure in Greek mythology who was compelled to bear the world on his shoulders. Atlantic Ocean From Atlas Mountains in NW Africa From Atlas. Atlas (book of maps) From early atlases illustrated with a picture of Atlas bearing the earth.

atm– {air, vapor}: atmometer, atmosphere || From Gr atmos : vapor

atom– {atom, extremely small, indivisible}: atom, atomic, atomicity, atomism, atomize || From L atomus : incapable of division, atom From Gr atomos : uncut, indivisible, atom From a– : not + tomos : cut From temnein : to cut

audi– {to hear}: audible, audience, audio, audit, audition, auditor, auditorium obedient, obey || From L audire : to hear To audientia : hearing, listening, attention; audītio : a hearing, a listening; audītor : hearer, listener; audītōrium : a place of audience, lecture room

aug– {to increase}: augend, augment, augur, augury, inaugurate auction same as aux– see also august–, author– || From LL augēre (pp. auctum, prp. auxi) : to make grow, to increase, to enlarge, to enrich To auctor : originator, author

august– {majestic, awe-inspiring}: august, August, Augusta, Augustine, Augustus Cæsar see also aug– || From L augustus : majestic, dignified From augēre : to increase, to enrich

aur–1 {ear}: aural, auricle, auricular, binaural, monaural || From L auris : ear, the hearing To dim. auricula : the external ear, earlobe

aur–2 {gold}: aureate, Aurelia, Aurelius, aureola, aureole, Aureomycin™, auric, auriferous, aurous, aurum same as or–4 || From L aurum : gold To Au, the chemical symbol for gold

auspic– {a term used in augury: to see omens in birds’ flight}: auspice, auspicial, auspicious auspex comb. of avi– + spic– || From L auspicium : divination by means of birds From auspex : one who observes birds for divination From avis : bird + speciere : to observe, to look at

austr– {south}: aurora australis, Auster, austral, Australia, Australopithecus unrelated: Austria compare borea– || From L auster : the south wind To austrālis : southern

author– {to originate}: author, authoritarian, authoritative, authority, authorize see also aug– || From ME autour From OFr autor From L auctor : one who gives increase, hence: originator, causer, doer From augēre : to increase, to make grow

aut(o)– {within, self}: authentic, autistic, autobiography, autocrat, autogiro, autograph, automate, automatic, automation, automobile, automotive, autonomous, autopsy, autotomy || From Gr autos : self

aux– {to assist, to add to}: auxesis, auxiliary, auxin, auxochrome same as aug– || From L augēre (prp. auxi) : to make grow, to increase, to enlarge, to enrich, to furnish To auxilium : help, assistance; auxiliārius : helping, auxiliary

av– {to desire}: avarice, avid, avidin || From L avārus : desirous, covetous, greedy To avāritia : avarice, cupidity; avidus : vehemently desiring, longing for

avi– {bird, to fly}: avian, aviary, aviation, aviator, aviatrix, avifauna, avionics, rara avis see also auspic– || From L avis : bird To aviārius : relating to birds; aviārium : aviary

ax– {pivot, hub, axis}: abaxial, adaxial, axilla, axial, axis, axle, axonometric, coaxial, preaxial || From L axis : axle, axis

axi– {value, worth}: axiology, axiom, chronaxic || From Gr axioun : to think worthy From axios : worthy

axil– {armpit}: axil, axilla, axillary || From L axilla : armpit

Unattested, hypothesized
† Unknown origin

165 entries found.

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