The Cognātarium

bac– {rod, staff}: bacillary, bacillus, bacitracin, baculum, debacle, lactobacillus imbecile see also bactr– || From L baculus : rod, staff, walking stick

bacc– {berry}: baccate, bacciferous, bacciform, baccivorous || From L bacca, baca : berry

bactr– {rod, staff}: aerobacter, bacteria unrelated: Bactrian camel see also bac– || Gr baktērion, dim. of baktron : staff

bail– {porter, to carry, to keep in custody, to deliver}: bail (all senses except a hoop or support), bailey, bailie, bailiff, bailiwick || From ME & OFr : power, control, custody From OFr baillier : to keep in custody, to deliver From L bāiulo : to carry a burden From bāiulus : porter

bald– {bold, brave}: Archibald, Baldwin, Theobald Leopold || From OHG bald : bold

ball–1 {ball-shaped object}: balloon, ballot || From It. palla : ball From Langobardic palla : ball

ball–2 {to dance}: ball, ballad, ballade, ballerina, ballet || From Fr bal From OFr baller : to dance From LL ballare From Gr ballein : to throw, with the sense of ballizein : to dance, to jump about

balne– {bath}: balneal, balneation, balneology, balneotherapy It. bagno, Sp. baño, Fr. bain || From L balneum : bath From Gr balaneion : bath From

band– {band}: band, bandage, bandeau, bandwidth, bandy, hatband, headband, passband bend (heraldry) || From Gothic origin

bank–, banqu– {bench, table, moneylender’s table}: bank (all senses), bankroll, bankrupt, banquet, banquette, cutbank, embankment, mountebank bench || From ME banke From MFr banque From OIt banca : orig., table, moneylender’s exchange table From OHG bank : bench

banqu– see bank–

bar–1 {rod, barrier}: bar, barbell, barrage, barrier, barrister, embargo, embarrass || From ML barra : bar, barrier

bar–2 {pressure, weight, heavy}: bar (unit of pressure), bariatrics, baric, baritone, barium, baroceptor, barometer, baroscope, isobar, millibar same as bary– || From Gr baros : weight From barys : heavy

bar–3 {son of [in names of Hebraic origin]}: Barabbas, bar mitzvah, Barnabas, Barnaby, Bartholomew compare bat–3 || From Yiddish From Heb-Aram From Aram bar : son of

barb– {beard}: barb, Barbados, Barbarossa, barbate, barbel, barbellate, barber, barbet, barbette, barbul, rebarbative see also barbit– || From L barba : beard

barbar– {foreign}: Barbara, barbarian, barbaric, barbarous, Barbary Berber, rhubarb || From L barbarus From Gr barbaros : foreign, strange

barbit– {barbituric acid}: amobarbital, barbital, barbiturate, barbituric, phenobarbital, secobarbital see also barb– || From Ger barbitursäure : barbituric acid From ModL Usnea barbata : bearded moss From L barba : beard

bark– {boat, ship}: bark, barkentine, debark, embark barcarole Span. embarcadero || From OFr barque From OIt barca From LL barca : small boat

bary– {heavy}: barycenter, baryon, barysphere, barytes same as bar–2 || From Gr barys : heavy

bas–1 {foot, basis, low, under}: basal, base (foundation), baseball, baseboard, baseless, basement, basic, basis, basset Span. bajo same as bas–2, basid– || From L basis : pedestal, base, foundation

bas–2 {low, mean}: abase, base (mean), bas-relief, bass (music), basso, debase same as bas–1 compare alt– || From L basis : pedestal, base

bas–3 {to go}: anabas, Anabasis same as bat–2 || From Gr bainein : to go

basid– {basis}: basidiomycete, basidiospore, basidium see also bas–1 || From ModL From Gr basis : basis + ModL dim. suffix –idium

basil– {king}: Basil, basil, basilica, basilisk || From L basilius From Gr basileus : king To L basilicus : kingly; basilica To the name of a majestic building in Rome and other towns

bast– {plant fiber, to sew with bast, to make, to construct}: bast, baste (to sew), bastille, bastion unrelated: bastard, bastinado || From ME From OE bæst : bast

bat–1 {to beat}: abate, abatis, abattoir, bat, battalion, bate, batter, battery (all senses), battle, battlement, battue, combat, debate, embattled, rebate || From VL battere From L battuere : to beat

bat–2 {to walk, to go}: acrobat, adiabatic, anabatic, batophobia, hyperbaton, katabatic, stereobate, stylobate same as bas–3 || From Gr batos : going From bainein : to go, to walk

bat–3 {daughter of [in names of Hebraic origin]}: Bathsheba, bat mitzvah compare bar–3 || From Heb bat : daughter

bath(y)– {deep}: bathometer, bathos, bathypelagic, bathyscaph, bathysphere, bathythermograph see also benth– || From Gr bathys : deep From bathos : depth From IE *gwadh– : to plunge into, to sink

batrach– {frog, toad}: batrachian, batrachophagous, batrachotoxin || From Gr batrachos : frog From

bear– {to carry}: bear, bearing, forbear, overbearing || From ME beren : OE beran

beat– {blessed}: beatific, beatify, beatitude, Beatrice || From L beātus happy, blessed, pp. of beare : to make happy, to bless To beātitūdo : happiness, blessedness

beau– {beauty}: beau, beau geste, beau monde, beautician, beautiful, beauty, beaux-arts see also bell–1 || From Fr beau From L bellus : pretty, lovely

bell–1 {beautiful}: Annabelle, belladonna, belle, belles-lettres, Bellevue, Campobello, embellish Bel-Air, belvedere see also beau– || From L bellus : pretty, lovely

bell–2 {war}: antebellum, bellicose, belligerent, casus belli, postbellum, rebellion duel, rebel, revel || From L bellum : war To bellicōsus : warlike, bellicose; belligerare : to wage war

bell–3 {bellows}: bellows, belly || From OE belwes (pl. of beli) : bellows To OE belg : leather bag, purse, bellows

ben–1 {well}: Benedict, benediction, benefactor, benefic–, benefit, benevolent, benign, benison, Bennett, nota bene (abbr. n.b.) Fr. bien Span. bueno comparative form: melior– superlative form: optim– see also bon– compare mal– See also Appendix C || From L bene : well, in the right or good way, honorably, properly From bonus : good From IE *dwenē– : well From *deu– : to perform, to show favor To *dwenos– : useful, working To L bonus : good

ben–2 {son of [in names of Hebraic origin]}: Ben-Gurion, Benjamin, Reuben || From Heb ben : son of From Semitic To Ar bin

benefic– {to do well}: benefic, benefice, beneficence, beneficent, beneficial, beneficiary comb. of ben–1 + fic– || From L beneficium : kindness, benefit, service From benefacere : to do well From bene : well + facere : to do, to make

benth– {depth of the sea}: benthic, benthos, epibenthos see also bathy– || From Gr benthos : depth of the sea

benz– {benzene}: Benzedrine™, benzene, benzine, benzocaine, benzoic, benzoin, benzoyl, benzyl || From Fr benjoin From It benzoino From Ar lubān jāwī : benzoin, incense of Java

ber(n)– {a bear}: Bernard, Bernadette, berserk Bjorn || From OHG bero : bear & ON bera : bear

bert– {bright}: Adelbert, Albert, Bertha, Bertram, Egbert, Englebert, Gilbert, Herbert, Humbert, Robert, Wilbert || From OHG beraht : bright, shining

beth– {house [in names of Hebraic origin]}: Beth, Bethany, Bethel, Bethesda, Bethlehem unrelated: Elizabeth || From Heb beth, bet : house To bet : second letter of the Hebrew alphabet: ב To beta, second letter of the Greek alphabet: Β To alphabet

bi– {two}: bicameral, bicarbonate, bicentennial, biceps, bicuspid, bicycle, biennial, bifocal, bifurcate, bigamy, bilingual, billion, bimonthly, binomial, bipartisan, biped, bisect, bisexual, bivalve same as bin– see also bis– || From L bi– : two

bib– {to drink}: bib (all senses), bibb, bibcock, bibulous, imbibe, winebibber || From L bibere : to drink

bibl– {book}: Bible, biblical, bibliography, bibliophile, bibliopole, bibliotheca || From Gr biblion : book From biblos : papyrus From Byblos (now Dschebēl) in Phoenicia were papyrus was grown

bil– {bile}: bile, bilious, bilirubin, biliverdin, phycobilin || From L bilis : bile

bill– {document}: bill (document), billboard, billet (position, lodging), billet-doux, billfold see also bol–1, bull–1 || From ME bille From Anglo-L billa : altered From ML bulla : sealed document

bin– {two}: binary, binaural, binocular, combination, combine, recombinant combo same as bi– see also bis– || From L bi– : two

bi(o)– {life}: amphibian, anabiosis, antibiotic, biochemistry, biofeedback, biography, biology, biomass, biome, bionic, biopsy, biorhythm, biosphere, biota, halobiont, parabiosis, symbiosis same as obe– || From Gr bios : life & bion : living

bis– {twice, double}: bis, bis in die (b.i.d.), biscotti, biscuit, bissextile, bistort see also bi–, bin– || From L bis : double

bitumin– {bitumen}: bituminize, bituminous bitumen || From L bitumen : bitumen From

blanc–, blank– {white}: blanch, Blanche, blancmange, blank, blanket, carte blanche, Casablanca, Mont Blanc Sp. blanco It. bianco || From OFr blanc From Frank blank : white, gleaming

blank– see blanc–

blast– {germination, bud, sprout, embryo, growth}: blastema, blastocoele, blastocyst, blastoderm, blastogenesis, blastomycete, blastula, diploblast, mesoblast, trophoblast || From Gr blastanein : to bud, to spout From blastos : sprout

blem– {to throw}: emblem, problem unrelated: blemish same as bol–2 || From contractions with prefixes From Gr ballein : to throw

bol–1 {ball}: bola, bolero unrelated: bolus same as bill–, bull–1 || From Sp. bola : ball From L bulla : bubble, round object

bol–2 {to throw}: anabolism, diabolical, discobolus, ecbolic, embolus, embolism, hyperbola, hyperbole, metabolism, parabola, symbol ballistic, parable unrelated: bolus Span. Diablo same as blem– see also parl– || From Gr bolē : a stroke From ballein : to throw

bon– {good}: bona fide, bonanza, bon appetit, bon-bon, bonhomie, Bon Homme Richard, bonito, bon mot, bonny, bonus, bon voyage, debonair, pro bono publico, summum bonum boon, bountiful, bounty Ital. bono comparative form: melior– superlative form: optim– see also ben–1 compare mal– See also Appendix C || From L bonus : good To noun bonum : good, profit, advantage; bonitās : goodness, excellence From IE *dwenos– : working, useful From *deu– : to perform, to show favor To *dwenē– : well To L bonus : good

borea– {north}: aurora borealis, boreal, Boreas, hyperborean compare not–2 || From LL From Gr borea : north wind To Boreas : god of the north wind

bos–, bov– {ox, bull, cow}: Bos (cattle genus), boss (calf, cow), Bossy (pet name for a cow), bovid, bovine, Ovibos see also bu– || From L bōs (gen. bovis) : ox, bullock, cow

bosc– {to feed}: Proboscidea, proboscis || From Gr boskein : to feed, to graze

botan– {a plant}: botanica, botanist, botany, ethnobotany || From Gr botanē : a plant From boskein : to feed

botry– {a bunch of grapes}: botryoidal, botryomycosis, botrytis || From Gr botrys : bunch of grapes

bouill– see bull–2

bourg– see burg–

bov– see bos–

brace– {arm}: brace (all senses), bracelet, bracer, bracero, embrace same as brachi–, brass– || From OFr bracer : to brace, to embrace From L brachia, pl. of brachium : arm From Gr brachiōn : arm, upper arm

brachi– {arm}: brachial, brachiate, brachiopod, brachium same as brace–, brass– || From L brāchium : arm From Gr brachiōn : arm, upper arm

brachy– {short}: brachycephalic, brachycranial, brachydactylic, brachylogy, brachypterous, brachyuran amphibrach compare mec–, dolich– || From Gr brachys : short

brady– {slow, tardy}: bradycardia, bradykinin, bradylogia compare tach–2 || From Gr bradys : slow

branchi– {gills}: abranchiate, branchiae, branchiopod, Elasmobranchii, tetrabranchiate see also bronch– || From Gr branchia : gills

brand– {sword, flame, to burn, to brand, to mark}: brand (all senses), brandish, brandling, brand-new, brandy, firebrand || From ME From OE brand, brond : flame, torch, sword

brass– {arm}: brassard, brassiere unrelated: brass same as brace–, brachi– || From Fr bras : arm From L brachia, pl. of brachium : arm From Gr brachiōn : arm, upper arm

brat– {meat}: bratwurst, sauerbraten || From OHG brato : meat

brav– {brave, bold}: bravado, brave, bravery, bravissimo, bravo, bravura || From It. bravo : brave, bold; orig. wild, savage From L barbarus From Gr barbaros : foreign, strange

break– {to break}: break, breakable, breakage, breakaway, breakdown, breaker, break-even, breakfast, breakfront, break-in, breakneck, breakout, breakthrough, breakup, breakwater, outbreak, unbreakable brake, breach Ger. brechen || From ME breken From OE brecan

brev– {short}: abbreviate, abbreviation, alla breve, breve, brevet, breviary, brevity abridge, brief || From L brevis : short (spatial), brief (temporal) To brevitās : shortness, brevity

brig– {to fight}: brig, brigade, brigadier, brigand, brigantine || From OIt brigare : to contend, to struggle From briga : strife, quarrel

broc–, broch– {spike, to have projecting points}: brocade, brocatelle, broccoli, broché, brochette, brochure, brocket broach, brooch || From ML brocca : a spike, a point From L broccus : having projecting teeth

broch– see broc–

brom– {stench}: bromic acid, bromide, brominate, bromine, bromism, Bromo Seltzer™ || From Gr brōmos : stench

bronch– {bronchus}: bronchial, bronchiole, bronchitis, bronchopneumonia, bronchoscope, bronchospasm, bronchus see also branchi– || From Gr bronchos : windpipe

bront– {thunder}: Brontes, bronteum, brontology, brontosaur, brontothere || From ML From Gr brontē : thunder

brut– {heavy, dull, stupid, unreasonable}: brut, brutal, brute, Brutus || From L brutus : heavy, dull, without feeling or reason, irrational

bry(o)–1 {moss, lichen}: bryology, bryophyte, bryozoan see also bryo–2 || From Gr bryon : moss, lichen From bryein : to sprout

bry(o)–2 {to swell, to grow}: bryony, embryectomy, embryo, embryogenesis, embryology see also bryo–1 || From Gr bryein : to swell, to grow

bu– {ox, bull, cow}: Bucephalus, bucolic, buffalo (more at buff–2), bugle, bugloss, bulimia, buprestid, butter see also bos– || From Gr bous : ox

buff–1 {to strike}: blindman’s buff, buffer (impact absorber, intermediary), buffet (to strike) unrelated: buffet (meal serving) || From ME From OFr From dim. of buffe : a blow

buff–2 {buffalo skin}: buff (color), buff (enthusiast), buff (nude), buff (to polish), bufflehead unrelated: buffet (meal serving) part of bu– || From Fr buffle From It bufalo From LL bufalus, var. of bubalus : wild ox From Gr boubalos : buffalo, antelope From bous : ox, cow

buff–3 {to blow, a gust}: buffoon, rebuff unrelated: buffet (meal serving) || From It buffare : a gust, a puff From probably echoic

bull–1 {ball, bubble, a round object}: bull (papal document), bulla, bullate, bullet, bulletin same as bol–1 see also bill–, bull–2 || From L bulla : bubble, round object

bull–2, bouill– {to bubble up, to boil}: bouillabaise, bouillon, bullion, bully (canned beef), ebullient see also bull–1 || From L bullire : to bubble up, to boil

buoy– {to float}: buoy, buoyancy, buoyant || From ME From

burg–, bourg– {fortified town, town}: bourg, bourgeois, burg, burgess, burgher, burglar, burgomaster, burgrave, Hamburg, Pittsburgh, Strasbourg borough see also bury– || From Frank burg or OHG burg : town, fortified place

burs– {sack, purse}: bursa, bursar, bursary, burse, bursiform, bursitis, disburse, reimburse bourse, purse, purser || From ML bursa : purse, bag To bursārius : treasurer; From Gr bursa : skin, wineskin

bury– {defended or fortified town}: Canterbury, Danbury see also burg– || From OE From Frank burg or OHG burg : town, fortified place

but–1 {to drive, to thrust against}: abut, butt (to strike), butte, button, buttress, rebut unrelated: but same as fut– || From ME butten : to drive, to thrust From OFr buter From Frank botan : to thrust against

but–2 {end, thick end}: butt (end), butt (object of ridicule), butt joint, buttock, debut, debutante || From ME but, butte : butt, thick end From

but–3 {bottle, cask}: butler, butt (cask), scuttlebutt || From ME butte From OFr botte From ML butta From LL buttis : cask

butter– {butter}: butter, butterball, buttercup, butterfat, butterfingers, butterfish, butterfly, buttermilk, butternut, butterscotch, butterwort, buttery same as butyr– || From ME butere From L butyrum From Gr boutyron From bous : ox, cow + tyros : cheese

butyr– {butter}: butyraceous, butyraldehyde, butyrate, butyric, butyrin same as butter– || From L butyrum From Gr boutyron From bous : ox, cow + tyros : cheese

Unattested, hypothesized
† Unknown origin

103 entries found.

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