The Cognātarium

caco– {bad}: cacoethes, cacogenics, cacography, cacophony compare eu– || From Gr kakos : bad, evil

cad– {to fall}: cadaver, cadence, cascade, decadent decay same as cas–1, cid–1 || From L cadere : to fall

cade– {procession}: aquacade, cavalcade, motorcade || From cavalcade From Fr From It cavalcata From cavalcare : to ride a horse From VL caballicatum, pp. of caballicare : to ride a horse From L caballus : horse

cafe– {coffee}: cafe (restaurant), café (coffee), cafeteria caffeine, coffee see also Appendix J || From Fr From It càffe From Turk qahwe From Ar qahwa : coffee; said to be named after Kaffa, an area in Ethiopia where the coffee plant was grown

cain– {cocaine}: cocaine, eucaine, Novocain™, procaine || From cocaine From Sp coca From Quechuan cuca : coca

cal–1 {beautiful}: calisthenics, calla lily, calligraphy, Calliope, callipygian, calomel kaleidoscope || From Gr kallos : beauty

cal–2 {heat}: calefacient, calenture, calescent, caloric, calorie, calorific, calorimeter Span. caliente same as cald– || From L calor : heat, warmth From calēre : to be warm, to glow

cal–3 {day of the month, month}: calendar, calends, calendula, intercalary, intercalate || From L Kalendae, Calendae (gen. Kalendārum) : the first day of the Roman month From calare : to call, to summon

calc–1 {stone}: calcareous, calciferous, calcify, calcium, calculate, calculus (all senses), incalculable chalk || From L calcis, gen. of calx : stone, limestone, lime, chalk From or akin to Gr chalix : pebble; To dim. calculus : little stone, pebble

calc–2 {spur, heel, foot}: calcaneus, calcar (spur), recalcitrant calk, inculcate see also calc–3, calce– || From L calx (gen. calcis) : heel From IE *skel– : bent, curved, twisted

calc–3 {to press, to trample, to tread}: decalcomania calque, caulk ultimately from calc–2 || From L calcare : to tread upon, to trample on From calcis, gen. of calx : heel From IE *skel– : bent, curved, twisted

calce– {shoe}: calceiform, calceolaria, calceolate, discalced ultimately from calc–2 || From L calceus : shoe From calx : heel To calcitrare : to kick To recalcitrare : to kick back (as a horse) To recalcitrātus : a kicking back

cald– {hot}: caldarium, caldera, caldron, scald Fr. chaud same as cal–2 compare frig– || From L calidus : warm, hot From calēre : to be warm

calv– {the upper part of the skull, hence: bald}: calvarium, Calvary, Calvin || From L calva : bald scalp of the head From calvus : bald To L calvāria : skull

calyps–, calypt– {to cover}: apocalypse, Calypso, calyptra, calyptrogen, eucalyptus unrelated: calypso (music) || From Gr Kalypsō : a siren in Odyssey & kalyptra : covering, veil; both From Gr kalyptein : to conceal, to cover

calypt– see calyps–

camar– {chamber}: camaraderie, camarilla comrade same as camer– || From Fr From L camera From Gr kamara : vaulted chamber

cambi– {to exchange}: cambio, cambist, cambium see also change– || From LL cambiare From L cambire : to exchange

camer– {chamber}: bicameral, camera, camera obscura, camerlengo, in camera, unicameral chamber same as camar– || From L camera From Gr kamara : vaulted chamber

camp– {open field}: aide-de-camp, camp, campaign, camper, campfire, campground, Campobello, campus, decamp Span. campo, campesino same as champ– || From L campus : level space, open field

can–1 {reed, cane, tube, rod, measuring rod}: canal, canasta, cane, canister, canneloni, cannon, cannula, canon, canonical, canonize, canyon, Cape Canaveral || From L canna : reed, reedpipe From Gr kanna : reed

can–2 {dog}: canaille, canary, Canary Islands, Canicula, canicular, canine, Canis (Major, Minor) || From L canis : dog, hound

can–3 {duck}: canard, cancan || From Fr canard : duck, hoax; can-can From uncertain, possibly children’s word for duck

cand– {to burn, shining, white}: Candace, candelabra, candid, candidate, Candide, candle, candor, incandescent incendiary same as cens–2 || From L candēre : to be of shining white, to shine To candēla : candle; To candidus : shining white; candor : white color, luster From IE *kand– : to shine

cant–1 {corner, edge, angle}: cant (corner, tilt, slant), canteen, canthook, canthus, cantina, cantle, canton, cantonment, decant, decanter, epicanthus || From ME & OFr cant : corner, angle, edge From LL cantus : iron tire of a wheel From Celt

cant–2 {to sing, to chant}: cant (speech), cantata, canticle, canto, cantor, descant, incantation, recant same as cent–2, chant– Sp. cantar || From L cantus : song, poetry From cantare : to sing or play music From freq. of canere (pp. cantum) : to sing or play To cantor : singer, player

cap–1 {to take, to seize}: capable, capacity, capstan, captivate, captive, caption, captor, capture, incapacitate, mercaptan catch same as ceit–, ceiv–, cept–, cip–, cup–1 see also capacit–, cas–3, chas– || From L capere (pp. captum) : to take, to seize, to catch To freq. captare : to seize, to lay hold of, to hunt To captūra : a capture From IE *kap– : to grasp

cap–2 {head}: cap-à-pie, cape (headland), capo, caporal, caprice, madcap, recap corporal (military rank) same as cap–3, capit–, ceps–, chap–, chief–, cipit– || From L caput (gen. capitis) : head (of the body, of a group or organization, of an object, etc.) From

cap–3 {head covering, cape, cloak}: cap, caparison, cape (garment), capote, cappuccino, capuche, Capuchin, escapade, escape, escapement cope (vestment) same as cap–2, capit–, chap–, chief– || From L caput (gen. capitis) : head (of the body, of a group or organization, of an object, etc.) From

capacit– {to take, to receive, to hold}: capacious, capacitance, capacitive, capacitor, capacity, incapacitate see also cap–1 || From L capacis, gen. of capax : able to hold much, broad, capacious From L capere : to take

capill– {hair}: capillaceous, capillarity, capillary, capillitium see also chevel– || From L capillus : hair

capit– {head}: capital, capitalism, capitation, Capitol, capitulate, decapitate, per capita, recapitulate captain, chapter same as cap–2, cap–3, ceps–, chap–, chief–, cipit– || From L caput (gen. capitis) : head (of the body, of a group or organization, of an object, etc.) To capitālis : of the head, of life, of that which imperils a man’s life, deadly, mortal From

capr– {goat}: caper, capric acid, Capricorn, caprification, caprifig, capriole same as chevr– || From L caper : billy goat & capra : she-goat

car–1 {to carry, vehicle}: car, career, cargo, caricature, cariole, caroche, carpenter, carriage, carrier, carry || From L carrum, carrus : a four-wheeled carriage From Gaul carros

car–2 {flesh}: carrion, caruncle same as carn– || carrion From ME carioun From Anglo-Fr carogne From VL caronia : carcass From L caro (gen. carnis) : flesh To dim. caruncula : small piece of flesh

carb– {carbon, coal}: bicarbonate, carbide, carbohydrate, carbolic, carbon, carbonaceous, carbonate, carbonic, carboniferous, Carborundum™, carbuncle, carburetor || From L carbo (gen. carbōnis) To dim. carbunculus : little coal

carcin– {cancer}: carcinogen, carcinoma || From Gr karkinōma : cancer From karkinoun : to affect with a cancer From karkinos : crab

cardi– {heart}: cardiac, cardiogram, cardioid, cardiology, cardiovascular, megalocardia, myocardium, pericardium, tachycardia unrelated: cardinal same as cord–1, cour–1 || From Gr kardia : heart

carn– {flesh}: carnage, carnal, carnassial, carnation, carnival, carnivore, carnivorous, chili con carne, incarnadine, incarnate, reincarnation charnel same as car–2 || From L caro (gen. carnis) : flesh

carp–1 {fruit, seed}: acarpous, apocarpous, carpel, carpology, carpophagous, carpospore, endocarp, exocarp, mesocarp, parthenocarpy || From Gr karpos : fruit

carp–2 {to pluck, to seize}: carpe diem, carpet excerpt || From L carpere : to pluck, to card

carp–3 {wrist}: carpal, carpus || From Mod L From Gr karpos : wrist

cart– {a piece of paper}: à la carte, carte blanche, cartel, cartogram, cartography, carton, cartoon, cartouche, cartridge, cartulary card (paper), discard same as chart– || From OFr carte From ML carta : card, paper From L charta : leaf of paper, tablet From Gr chartēs : layer of papyrus

cary– see kary–

cas–1 {a fall, to fall, to befall, to happen, an event, an occurrence, by chance}: cascade, case (occurrence, instance), casual, casualty, casus belli, occasion same as cad–, cid–1 || From L casus : a chance, a falling, an occurrence From cāsum, pp. of cadere : to fall

cas–2 {house}: Casablanca, Casa Grande, casemate, casino Span. casa || From Sp & It casa : house From L casa : hut, cottage

cas–3 {to contain}: case (container), caseharden, casement, caseworm, cash, cashier (money handler), casing, casket, cassation, cassette same as chas– see also cap–1 || From OFr dial. casse From OFr chasse From L capsa : box, case From capere : to take, to hold

case– {cheese}: casease, caseation, casefy, casein, caseous Ger. Käse Span. queso, quesadilla || From L cāseus : cheese

cast–1 {to throw}: broadcast, cast, castaway, caster, castoff, downcast, forecast, miscast, outcast, simulcast, telecast || From ME casten From ON kasta : to throw

cast–2 {clean, pure, chaste}: caste, castigate incest same as chast– || From L castus : clean, pure, chaste

castl– {castle, fortified place}: castellan, castellated, castle see also chester– || From L castellum : castle, fortress, fort From castrum : castle, fortified place

cat– {cat}: catamount, catboat, caterpillar, caterwaul, catfish, catkin, catnap, catnip, Catskills, cattail, catty, catwalk || From ME & OE From a general European root From Germanic kattuz

cat(a)–, cath– {down, downward, back, backward, away, against, throughout, completely}: catabolism, catachresis, cataclastic, cataclysm, catacomb, catadromous, catafalque, catalepsy, catalog, catalyst, catamenia, cataphoresis, cataphyll, cataplasia, catapult, cataract, catarrh, catarrhine, catastasis, catastrophe, catatonia, catechesis, catechism, category, cathedral, catheter, cathexis, cathode, catholic, cation, catoptrics compare ana– cata– becomes cat– or cath– before a vowel. || From Gr kata : down

caten– {chain, to link together}: catena, catenary, catenate, catenulate, concatenate || From L catēna : chain

cath– see cata–

cathar– {pure, to purify}: catharsis, cathartic Catherine, Karen || From Gr kathairein : to purify From katharos : pure

caud– {tail}: acaudal, caudal, Caudata, caudate coda, coward || From L cauda, cōda : tail

caul– {stem, stalk}: amplexicaul, caulescent, caulicle, cauliflower, cauline, caulis same as col–4 || From L caulis, colis : stalk of a plant, cabbage

caus– {a cause, a reason, a lawsuit}: because, cause, cause célèbre, causerie unrelated: causeway same as cus– || From L causa : a cause, reason, judicial process, lawsuit

caust–, caut– {to burn}: causalgia, caustic, cauterize, encaustic, holocaust, hypocaust || From L causticus : burning, caustic From Gr kaustikos From kaustos : burning From kautein : to burn

caut– see caust–

cautio– {to be on guard}: caution, cautious, precaution caveat || From L cautio (gen. cautiōnus) : caution, care, foresight From cavēre (pp. cautum) : to be on guard, to guard against, to beware

cav– {hollow}: cave, cavern, cavicorn, cavitate, cavity, concave, excavate, vena cava || From L cavus (fem. cava) : hollow, concave From cavare : to hollow, to excavate

caval– {horse}: cavalcade, cavalier, cavalla, cavalry Span. caballero same as cheval– || From OFr From It & Port cavalla From L caballus : horse

ceas– {to go, to yield}: cease, decease unrelated: surcease see same as ced–, ced–, cess– || From L cessare : to leave off, to cease work, to be idle, to be at rest ( To cessātio : a delaying, inactivity; cessio : a giving up, a cession) From cessum, pp. of cēdēre : to go, to go away, to withdraw, to retire

cec– {blind}: Cecil, Cecilia, cecum || From L caecum : blind, unseen, hidden

ced–, ceed– {to go, to yield}: accede, antecedent, cede, concede, decedent, exceed, intercede, precede, precedence, precedent, procedure, proceed, recede, retrocede, secede, succeed same as ceas–, cess– || From L cēdēre (pp. cessum) : to go, to go away, to withdraw, to retire

ceed– see ced–

ceil– {to conceal}: ceil, ceiling, ceilometer conceal || From L cēlare : to hide, to conceal

ceit– {to take, to seize}: conceit, deceit receipt same as cap–1, ceiv–, cept–, cip–, cup–1 || From OFr –ceit From pp. of –ceveir From L –cipere (in comb.) From capere : to take, to seize, to catch

ceiv– {to take, to seize}: apperceive, conceive, deceive, perceive, preconceived, receive same as cap–1, ceit–, cept–, cip–, cup–1 || From OFr –ceveir From L –cipere (in comb.) From capere : to take, to seize, to catch

cel–1 {heaven, the heavens}: Celeste, celestial coelostat || From L caelestis From caelum : heaven, the heavens, the sky

cel–2 see excel–

cele– {tumor, hernia, swelling}: cystocele, hydrocele, rectocele, varicocele || From Gr kēlē : tumor, swelling, hernia

celebr– {to celebrate, to make known, to sing the praises}: celebrant, celebrate, celebration, celebrity || From L celebrare : to visit frequently or in large numbers, to celebrate, to solemnize, to publish, to make known, to sing the praises of, to honor To celebrātio : numerous assembly; celebritās : a multitude, fame, renown

celer– {swift}: accelerando, accelerate, celerity, decelerate || From L celer : swift, rapid To celeritās : swiftness, rapidity

cell– {small enclosure}: cell (all senses), cella, cellar, cellophane, cellular, cellule, cellulitis, Celluloid™, cellulose unrelated: cello || From L cella : a room, storeroom, garret, mean apartment, in a temple: the shrine of the god’s image

cen–1 {new, young, fresh, recent}: cenogenesis, Cenozoic, Eocene, Holocene, Miocene, Oligocene, Paleocene, Pleistocene, Pliocene, recent || From Gr kainos : recent

cen–2, coen– {common}: cenobite, cenospecies, coenocyte, coenurus, epicene || From Gr koinos : common

cens–1 {to judge, to assess}: censor, censure, census, recension unrelated: incense || From L censēre : to appraise, to estimate, to express an opinion To censor : a magistrate in charge of the census, a severe judge, a moralist, a censurer; census : census From IE *kens– : to speak solemnly, to proclaim

cens–2 {to burn, to shine}: censer, incense same as cand– || From ME encens From OFr From LL incensum : incense From L incensus, pp. of incendĕre : to kindle, to burn From candēre : to burn, to shine From IE *kand– : to shine

cent–1 {hundred}: cent, centavo, centenarian, centennial, centigrade, centimeter, centipede, centurion, century, percent || From L centum : hundred To centēnārius : containing a hundred; centuria : a division of a hundred

cent–2 {to sing}: accent, incentive, precentor same as cant–2, chant– || From L cantus : song, poetry From cantare : to sing or play music From freq. of canere (pp. cantum) : to sing or play

centr– {center}: center, centerboard, centerpiece, central, centralize, centric, centrifugal, centrifuge, centripetal, centrum, concentrate, concentric, decentralize, eccentric, epicenter, ethnocentric || From L centrum : center From Gr kentron : sharp point From kentein : to prick

cephal– {head, brain}: acephalous, Bucephalus, cephalopod, electroencephalogram, encephalitis, hydrocephalus, prosencephalon || From Gr kephalē : head From IE *ghebhel– : head

ceps– {head}: biceps, quadriceps, triceps unrelated: forceps same as cap–2, capit–, cipit– || From ModL (in comb.) From L caput : head From

cept– {to take, to seize}: accept, apperception, concept, conception, contraceptive, deception, except, exceptional, exteroceptor, imperceptible, inception, intercept, perception, perceptive, precept, preconception, receptacle, reception, receptive, susceptible forceps same as cap–1, ceit–, ceiv–, cip–, cup–1 || From L –ceptum, pp. of –cipere (in comb.) From capere : to take, to seize, to catch

cer–1 {wax}: adipocere, ceraceous, cerate, cere, cerecloth, cerement, cereus, ceriferous, cerography, ceromancy, ceroplastic, cerotic, cerotype, cerumen, ceruse, cerussite, ozocerite || From Gr. kēros : wax

cer–2 {the goddess Ceres, goddess of agriculture}: cereal, ceres, ceria, ceric, cerite, cerium, cermet see also Appendix E || From L Ceres (gen. Cerealis) : goddess of agriculture

cer(at)– see kerat–

cerc– {tail}: cercaria, Cercopithecidae, cercus, cysticercus, diphycercal || From Gr kerkos : tail

cerebr– {brain}: cerebral, cerebration, cerebrospinal, cerebrum cerebellum || From L cerebrum : brain To dim. cerebellum

cern– {to separate}: concern, discern, secern see also cert–, crem–2, cret–2, crimin–2, crin–2, cris–, crit– || From L cernere : to distinguish, to separate

cert–1 {to decide}: ascertain, certain, certificate, certify, certiorari, certitude decree || From L certus : determined, fixed : pp. of cernere : to distinguish, to decide

cert–2 see concert–

cess– {to go, to yield}: abscess, access, accession, accessory, cessation, cession, concession, excess, incessant, necessary, precession, predecessor, process, procession, recess, recession, recessive, success, succession, successive ancestor same as ceas–, ced–, ced– || From L cessare : to leave off, to cease work, to be idle, to be at rest ( To cessātio : a delaying, inactivity; cessio : a giving up, a cession) From cessum, pp. of cēdēre : to go, to go away, to withdraw, to retire

cet– {whale}: cetacean, cetane, cetology, Cetus, mysticete, spermaceti || From L cētus : large sea creature: whale, dolphin, seal

chaet– {hair, bristle}: chaeta, chaetognath, chaetopod, Oligochaeta, polychaete, spirochaete see also set–2 || From Gr chaitē : hair

chaf–, chauf– {to heat, to warm up}: chafe, chafing dish, chauffer, chauffeur, réchauffé unrelated: chafer, chaff || From OFr chafer : to warm From L calefacere : to heat up, to make warm From calēre : to be warm + facere : to do, to make

chalc– {copper, brass}: chalcid, chalcocite, chalcography, chalcopyrite unrelated: chalcedony || From Gr chalkos : copper, brass

cham– {on the ground}: chameleon, chamomile || From Gr chamai : on the ground

champ– {open field, level country}: Champagne (France), champagne, champaign, Champaign (Illinois), champignon, champion, Champs Élysées same as camp– || From Fr From It From L campus : level space, open field

chancel– {lattice, grating, hence: a place or person behind a lattice; also, to strike out or cross out [to make appear like a latticework]}: chancel, chancellor cancel, chancery Ger. Kanzler || From ME chauncel From OFr chancel From LL cancellus From L cancellaria : lattices From cancella, pl. of cancellus : lattice, grating From dim. of cancer : crossed bars From carcer : prison

change– {to change}: change, changeable, changeling, changeover, exchange, interchange see also cambi– || From ME changen From OFr changier From LL cambiare From cambire to exchange From Celt

chant– {to sing}: chant, chanteuse, chantey, chanticleer, chantry, enchant Fr. chanson same as cant–2, cent–2 || From L cantus : song, poetry From cantare : to sing or play music From freq. of canere (pp. cantum) : to sing or play

chap– {head, head covering, protection}: chape, chapeau, chaperon, chapiter, chaplet more at chapl– same as cap–2, cap–3, capit–, chief– || From OFr From LL cappa : cape, hooded cloak, covering for the head

chapl– {originally, a sanctuary for the cope [cape] of St. Martin, hence: a sanctuary}: chapel, chaplain a cappella part of chap– || From ME & OFr chapelle From ML cappella From dim. of cappa : cape, hooded cloak

charge– {to load}: charge, chargé d’affaires, discharge, recharge || From ME From OFr From L carrus : wagon

charis– {divine gift or favor}: charisma, charismatic, Eucharist || From Gr(Ec) charis : grace, kindness From charizesthai : to show favor From charein : to rejoice

chart– {a piece of paper}: chart, charter, Magna Charta, uncharted same as cart– || From OFr carte From ML carta : card, paper From L charta : leaf of paper, tablet From Gr chartēs : layer of papyrus

chas– {to seize, to hold, to contain}: chase (all senses), chaser, chassé, chasseur, chassis, enchase, purchase sashay same as cas–3 see also cap–1 || From OFr chasse From L capsa : box, case From capere : to take, to hold

chast– {clean, pure}: chaste, chasten, chastise same as cast–2 || From OFr From L castus : clean, pure, chaste

chat– {castle}: chateau, chatelaine || From Fr From OFr chastel, castel From L castellum : castle, fortress From dim. of castrum : castle, fort

chauf– see chaf–

cheat– {to fall out, that which falls out}: cheat, escheat || From ME eschete (pp. of escheoir) : that which falls to one From VL excadere : to fall upon From ex– : out + cadere : to fall, to occur

chel– {claw}: chela, chelate, chelicera, cheliform unrelated: Chelonia || From Gr chēlē : claw

chem– {transmutation}: alchemy, biochemistry, chemical, chemistry, chemotherapy, chemurgy, photochemical || From ME alchymie From OFr alchimie From ML alchemia From Ar al-kīmiyā From Gr chēmeia From possibly from Khēmia : old name for Egypt

cherche– {to search}: cherchez la femme, recherché same as Eng. search || From Fr chercher From OFr cercher : to search From LL circare : to go around, to go about, to explore

chester– {castle, fortified town}: Chester, Rochester, Westchester, Winchester see also castl– || From OE From L castrum : castle, fort, fortified camp

chet– see chaet–

cheval– {horse}: àcheval, cheval glass, chevalier chivalry same as caval– || From OFr From It & Port cavalla From L caballus : horse

chevel– {hair}: chevelure dishevel see also capill– || From Fr From L capillatura : the hair, hairy

chevr– {goat}: chevron, chevrotain same as capr– || From OFr chevron & chevrot From VL caprione From L capra : goat

chief– {head}: chief, chieftain, handkerchief, kerchief, mischief achieve, chef same as cap–2, cap–3, capit–, chap– || From ME chef, chief : leader From OFr From VL capum From L caput : head From

chil– {pepper}: chili, enchilada || From MexSp From Nahuatl chilli : chili pepper

chili– {thousand}: chiliad, chiliarch, chiliast Chilopoda same as kilo– || From Gr chilioi : thousand

chiro– {hand}: chiral, chiromancy, chiropodist, chiropractor, Chiroptera, Hecatonchires Ger. Chirurg || From Gr cheir : hand

chlamyd–, chlamys– {cloak}: achlamydeous, chlamydate, chlamydia, chlamydospore, chlamys || From L From Gr chlamyd– From chlamys : mantle, cloak

chlamys– see chlamyd–

chlor– {green, chlorine [from its color]}: bichloride, chloral, chlorate, chloride, chlorinate, chlorine, chlorite, chlorite, chloroform, chlorophyll, chlorosis || From Gr chloros : pale green

chol– {bile}: choler, cholera, choleric, cholesterol, choline, melancholy more at choline– || From Gr cholē : gall bile

choline– {a bodily fluid}: acetylcholine, cholinesterase, succinylcholine part of chol– || From Gr cholē : gall bile

chondr– {cartilage}: achondrite, achondroplasia, Chondrichthyes, chondrify, chondriosome, chondrite, chondrocranium, chondroma, chondrule, dichondra, enchondroma, hypochondriac, hypochondrium, mitochondrion || From Gr chondros : cartilage, grain

chor–1 {singing, dancing}: choral, chorale, chorea, choreography, choriamb, choric, chorine, chorister, chorus, Terpsichore carol (song), choir || From L chorus : band of dancers, persons singing and dancing ( To chorēa : a dance) From Gr choros : singing and dancing

chor–2 {to leave, to spread out, to go, to go to a place, a place}: anachorism, anchorite, anemochore, chorography, enchorial, isochore, zoochore || From L From Gr chōros : open area To chorein : to spread out, to leave, to retire

chord– {cord, straight line, supporting member}: chord, chordate, harpsichord, hexachord, notochord, tetrachord || From Gr chordē : catgut (usu. as the string of an instrument), cord, chord

christ– {Jesus Christ}: antichrist, Christ, Christabel, Christchurch, christen, christendom, Christian, Christianity, Christine, Christmas, Christopher, Corpus Christi Kirsten, Sangre de Cristo || From L Christus From Gr Christos : the anointed one From chriein : to anoint

chro– {color}: isochroous, pleochroism see also chrom– || From Gr –chroos (comb. form) From chrōs : color; akin to chrōma : color

chrom– {color}: achromatic, chroma, chromatic, chrome, chromium, chromosome, chromosphere, Kodachrome™, monochrome see also chro– || From Gr chrōma (gen. chrōmatos) : color

chron– {time}: anachronism, asynchronous, chronic, chronicle, chronological, chronometer, dendrochronology, diachronic, synchronize more at synchro– || From Gr chronos : time

chrys– {golden, yellow}: chrysalis, chrysanthemum, Chryseis, chryselephantine, chrysolite, chrysopoeia || From Gr chrysos : gold From Semitic

chthon– {earth}: allochthonous, autochthon, chthonian, chthonic || From Gr chthōn : the earth

chute– {a fall}: chute, Deschutes, parachute || From Fr chute : a fall From OFr cheute From cheoite, pp. of cheoir : to fall From L cadere : to fall

chym– see enchym–

cid–1 {to fall, to happen}: accident, coincide, coincidence, deciduous, incident, Occident (compare or–1), recidivism same as cad–, cas–1 || From L –cidere (comb. form) From cadere : to fall, to happen, to occur

cid–2 {to cut, to cut down, to kill}: decide, deicide, fratricide, fungicide, genocide, germicide, herbicide, homicide, infanticide, insecticide, mariticide, matricide, patricide, pesticide, sororicide, suicide, uxoricide same as cis–2 || From L –cida (comb. form) From caedere : to cut down, to kill

cil– see concil–

cili– {eyelid, eyebrow, eyelash}: cilia, ciliated, supercilious || From L cilium (pl. cilia) : eyelid

cinct– {to surround, to encircle}: cincture, precinct, succinct cinch same as cingl– || From L cinctus : a girding, an encircling To cinctum, pp of cingere : to surround, to encircle To cinctura : girdle; To cingulum : belt, girdle From IE *kenk– : to gird, to encircle, to bind

cine(ma)– {motion, hence: motion picture}: cinéaste, cinema, CinemaScope™, cinematography, cinéma vérité, cinephile, Cinerama™, telecine specialized use of kine– || From Fr From Gr kinēma (gen. kinēmatos) : motion

ciner– {ashes}: cineraria, cinerarium, cinerator, cinereous, incinerate, incinerator || From L cineris, gen of cinis : ashes

cingl– {belt, girdle}: cingulum, surcingle same as cinct– || From L cingulum : belt, girdle From IE *kenk– : to gird, to encircle, to bind

cinqu– {five}: cinquain, cinquecento, cinquefoil, Cinque Ports Fr. cinq It. cinque Sp. cinco see also quinqu–, quint– || From ME From OFr & It cinque : five From L quinque : five From IE *penkwe– : five

cip– {to take, to seize}: anticipate, emancipate, incipient, manciple, municipal, participate, participle, principal, principle, recipe, recipient same as cap–1, ceit–, ceiv–, cept–, cup–1 || From L –cipere (in comb.) From capere : to take, to seize, to catch

cipit–, ciput– {head}: ancipital, occipital, occiput, precipitate, precipitous, sinciput precipice same as cap–2, capit–, ceps– || From L –cipitus (gen. comb. form) From –ceps (comb. form) & –ciput (comb. form) From caput : head

ciput– see cipit–

circ– {ring, round about}: circa, circadian, circle, circuit, circuitous, circular, circulate, circus, encircle cirque more at circum– || From L circus : circle, ring, racecourse ( To circum : in a circle, around To circa : around, round about); dim. circulus : circle, circuit

circum– {around}: circumcise, circumference, circumlocution, circumnavigate, circumscribe, circumspect, circumstance, circumvent part of circ– || From L circum : in a circle, around To circus : circle, ring, racecourse

cirr– {curl, tendril, filament}: cirrate, cirriped, cirrocumulus, cirrose, cirrostratus, cirrus unrelated: cirrhosis || From L cirrus : a curl, a lock, a ringlet of hair

cis–1 {on this side}: cisalpine, cisatlantic, cislunar, cismontane || From L cis : on this side of

cis–2 {to cut}: abscise, circumcise, concise, concision, decision, decisive, excise (to cut out), incision, incisive, incisor, précis, precise, precision, scissors chisel unrelated: excise (tax) same as cid–2 || From L –cīsum, pp. of –cīdere (comb. form) From caedere : to cut, to cut down

cist– {box, chest}: cist, cistern, cisterna || From L cista : chest, box for keeping money To cisterna : cistern

cit–1 {city, citizen}: citadel, citify, citizen, city same as civ– || From ME cité, citet From OFr From L cīvitās : citizenship From cīvis : citizen

cit–2 {to set in motion, to summon}: citation, cite, excite, incite, oscitancy, recital, recite, resuscitate, solicit unrelated: elicit || From L citare : to put into motion, to summon From freq. of ciēre (pp. citum) : to move, to rouse, to disturb, to excite

civ– {city, citizen}: civic, civil, civilian, civility, civilization, civilize Span. ciudad same as cit–1 || From ME cité, citet From OFr From L cīvitās : citizenship From cīvis : citizen To cīvīlus : of a citizen; cīvīcus : of a citizen, civic

clad– {branch, shoot}: clade, cladistics, cladoceran, cladogram, cladophyll || From Gr klados : branch

claim– {to cry out}: acclaim, claim, declaim, disclaim, disclaimer, exclaim, proclaim, reclaim same as clam– || From ME claimen From OFr claimer : to call, to claim From L clāmare : to cry aloud, to shout, to call to or call upon, to proclaim To clāmor : a loud shouting

clair– {clear}: Clair, clairaudience, clairvoyant, éclair, éclaircissement, Eau Claire same as clar– || From Fr clair : clear From L clārus : clear, distinct

clam– {to cry out}: acclamation, clamor, exclamation, proclamation, reclamation, reclamé same as claim– || From L clāmare : to cry aloud, to shout, to call to or call upon, to proclaim To clāmor : a loud shouting

clar– {clear}: Clara, Clare, Clarence, claret, Clarice, clarify, clarinet, clarion, clarity, claro, declaration, declare Ger. klar same as clair– || From L clārus : clear, distinct

clase– {to break, to fracture}: oligoclase, orthoclase, plagioclase same as clast– || From Gr klasis : a cleaving, fracture From klaein : to break To klastos : broken

class– {class, division}: class, classic, classify, classis, classy, déclassé || From L classis : class or division of the Roman people To classicus : relating to the classes of people

clast– {to break}: anaclastic, cataclastic, clastic, iconoclast, pyroclastic same as clase– || From Gr klastos : broken From klaein : to break To klasis : a cleaving, fracture

claud– {lame}: Claude, Claudia, claudication || From L claudus : limping, lame To claudicare : to be lame, to limp

claus– {closed}: clause, claustral, claustrophobia, mare clausum same as clois–, clos–, clud–, clus– see also clav–1 || From L clausum, pp. of claudere : to shut, to close; same as clūdere, pp. clūsum; akin to clāvis : key

clav–1 {key, locked or closed-off place}: autoclave, clavichord, clavicle, clavier, conclave, enclave, exclave, subclavian clef, roman à clef see also claus– || From L clāvis : key; akin to claudere : to shut, to close

clav–2 {club}: clave, clavate, clavicorn, claviform || From L clāva : club, cudgel

cleist– {closed}: cleistogamous, cleistothecium || From Gr kleistos : closed

clemen– {mild, kind}: clemency, clement, Clement, Clementine, inclement || From L clēmens (gen. clementis) : mild, kind, merciful

clim– {slope}: acclimate, anticlimax, climacteric, climactic, climate, climatology, climax, clime same as clin–1, clit–, cliv– || From Gr klima : region, zone From klinein : to to slope (climate From klima was originally the slope of the earth down from the poles) To klimax : ladder

clin–1 {slope, to lean}: aclinic, anaclinal, anticline, cline, clinometer, decline, incline, recline, thermocline declension same as clim–, clit–, cliv– see also clin–2 || From L –clīnare (only in comb.) : to lean, to incline From Gr klinein : to lean

clin–2 {to recline, hence: bed, couch}: clinic, diclinous, monoclinous, policlinic, polyclinic, triclinium see also clin–1 || From Gr klinikē technē : practice at the sickbed From klinikos : of the bed From klinē : bed From klinein : to recline

clit– {to slope, to lean, a hill}: anaclitic, clitoris, enclitic, proclitic same as clim–, clin–1, cliv– || From Gr –klitikos (in comb.) : leaning From klinein : to lean To klitys, kleitys : hill To kleitoris : clitoris

cliv– {slope, to lean}: acclivity, declivity, proclivity same as clim–, clin–1, clit– || From L clīvus : slope, rise, gradient; akin to –clīnare (only in comb.) : to lean, to incline

clois– {closed}: cloisonné, cloister same as claus–, clos–, clud–, clus– || From Fr From L clausum, pp. of claudere : to shut, to close To claustrum : a means of shutting in: bolt, bar, enclosure To cloister

clos– {to close}: close (near), close (to shut or conclude), closet, closure, disclose, eclosion, enclose, enclosure, foreclose cloture same as claus–, clois–, clud–, clus– || From Fr From L clausum, pp. of claudere : to shut, to close, to enclose

clud– {to close}: conclude, exclude, include, occlude, preclude, seclude same as claus–, clois–, clos–, clus– || From L –clūdere, pp of claudere (in comb) : to shut, to close, to enclose

clus– {closing}: conclusion, exclusive, inclusive, malocclusion, occlusion, recluse, seclusion same as claus–, clois–, clos–, clud– || From L –clusum (pp. of –cludere) (in comb.) From claudere : to shut, to close, to enclose

cnid– {nettle, hence: stinging}: Cnidaria, cnidocyst, cnidocyte || From ModL From Gr knidē : nettle

coc– {to cook, to prepare food, to prepare, to contrive}: concoct, decoct, precocious cook, dementia praecox same as cott– || From L coctum, pp. of coquere : to cook thoroughly To It. cotta : cooked, baked

coca– {coca plant}: coca, Coca-Cola™, cocaine || From Sp coca From Quechuan cuca : coca

cocc– {berry, seed, kernel; a type of bacterium of spherical shape}: coccid, cocciferous, Coccinellidae, coccolith, coccus, echinococcus, enterococcus, gonococcus, pneumococcus, staphylococcus, streptococcus cochineal unrelated: coccyx || From ML From Gr kokkos : kernel, seed, berry From

cochl– {snail shell, hence: spiral}: cochlea, cochleate || From L cochlea From Gr kochlias : snail From kochlos : shellfish; akin to konchē : conch

cock– {cock, rooster, and its perceived characteristics}: cock, cockade, cockalorum, cockchafer, cocker spaniel, cockerel, cockeye, cockney, cockpit, cocksure, cocky, gamecock, peacock, woodcock unrelated: cockamamie, cockatiel, cockatoo, cockatrice, cockboat, cockle, cockroach, cocktail || From ME kok From OE coc & OFr coq; akin to Dan kok & ON kokkr

cod– {tree trunk, wood, wooden tablet, to write on a tablet, document, legal document}: code, codex, codify, codicil unrelated: coda || From L cōdex (gen. cōdicis) : tree trunk, a book of wooden tablets, a book To dim cōdicilli

coel– {body cavity}: amphicoelus, coelacanth, coelenterate, coelenteron, coeliac, coelom celiac unrelated: coelostat || From Gr koilia : body cavity From koilos : hollow

coen– see cen–2

coff– {basket}: coffer, cofferdam, coffin unrelated: coffee || From ME & OFr From L cophinus : basket, hamper

cogn– {to know}: cognition, cognizant, cognomen, cognoscente, incognito, pharmacognosy, precognition, recognition, recognizance, recognize, terra incognita unrelated: cognate same as conn– see also quaint– || From L cognoscere (pp. cognitus) : to become acquainted with, to get to know, to learn; of judges: to examine, to decide ( To cognitio : getting to know, study, knowledge) From cum : together with + gnoscere, noscere : to become acquainted with, to get knowledge of

col–1 {the large intestine, the colon}: colic, coliform, colitis, colon, colopexy, colostomy || From Gr kolon : the colon

col–2 {to dwell}: arenicolous, colony, corticolous, limicoline, limicolous, nidicolous, pratincole, saxicolous, terricolous same as cult– || From L colere (pp. cultum): to cultivate, to till, to attend To colōnia : farm, estate, dwelling

col–3 {to filter}: colander, percolate, piña colada || From L cōlum : sieve, strainer, colander To cōlare : to strain To percōlare (pp. percōlatus) : to percolate

col–4 {cabbage}: colcannon, cole, coleslaw, colza cauliflower, kohlrabi same as caul– || From ME col From OE cal From L caulis, colis : the stalk of a plant, cabbage plant

cole– {sheath}: Coleoptera, coleoptile, coleorhiza, coleus || From Gr koleos : sheath

coll–1 {neck}: collar, decollate, décolletage, décolleté, torticollis accolade || From L collum : neck To collāre : a chain for the neck; dēcollare : to behead

coll–2 {glue}: collage, collagen, collenchyma, collodion, colloid, collotype || From Gr kolla : glue

colon– {column}: colonel, colonnade column unrelated: colon (large intestine), colon (punctuation or unit of prosody) || From It colonna : column From L columna : column, pillar

color– {color}: color, Colorado, coloration, coloratura, colorblind, colored, colorfast, colorful, colorless, discolor || From L color : color, hue

coloss– {huge}: colossal, Colosseum, colossus || From L colossus : a gigantic statue ( To colosseum : gigantic, colossal) From Gr kolossus : gigantic

colp– {womb}: colpitis, colpopexy, colposcope || From Gr kolpos : womb

colubr– {serpent, snake}: colubrid, colubrine cobra || From L coluber (fem. colubra) : snake, serpent

columb– {dove, gray, ashen}: columbarium, columbary, columbine || From L columbus : dove, pigeon (orig. a gray bird) To columbārium : dovecote, columbarium

com–1 {Generally has the sense of ‘with, together, alongside.’ Also used as an intensive. In some cases, it has no definable sense apart from the attached stem.}: accommodate, accompany, accomplice, combat, combine, combustion, comfort, command, commemorate, commence, commend, commensurate, comment, commerce, commiserate, commission, commit, commode, commodore, common, commotion, communicate, community, commute, compact, companion, compare, compass, compassion, compatible, compel, compensate, compete, compile, complain, complement, complex, compose, compound, comprehend, comprise, compromise, computer, recompense same as con–1, coun–, cum– || From L com– (comb. form) From cum : together with From IE *kom– : beside, near, by, with

com–2 {hair}: coma (all senses except unconsciousness), comate, comet || From L coma : hair of the head, foliage of trees From Gr komē : hair

comit– {to go with, to accompany}: comitative, comitia, concomitant unrelated: comity comb. of com–1 + it– || From L comitari : to accompany, to attend From cōmes (gen. cōmitus) : fellow-traveller, companion on a journey From com– : together with + itum, pp. of īre : to go From IE *ei– : to go

commun– {common, public, to exchange}: commune, communicable, communicant, communicate, communion, communiqué, communism, community, excommunicate, incommunicado common || From L commūnis : shared, common, public To commūnicare : to share, to divide out; commūnicātio : communicating, imparting

con–1 {with, together, alongside}: same as com–1 (used before c, d, g, j, n, q, s, t, v and sometimes f), coun– extended form: contra– || From L con– (comb. form) From cum : together with From IE *kom– : beside, near, by, with

con–2 {to strive, to attempt}: conation, conative, conatus || From L cōnari : to undertake, to endeavor, to attempt, to strive To cōnātus : an effort, an undertaking

concert– {to bring into agreement, to harmonize}: concert, concerted, concertina, concerto, disconcert || From L concertare : to strive, to contend To com– : together with + certare : to settle by contest, to struggle

conch– {shell, mollusk, mussel}: conch, concha, conchiferous, conchoid, conchology || From L concha : seashell From Gr konchē : mussel, shell; akin to kochlos : shellfish

concil– {to call together}: conciliate, conciliatory, reconcile council || From L concilium : a coming together, assembly, gathering, council ( From cum– : together + calare : to call, to summon) To conciliare : to bring together, to unite

cond– {to put up, to put away, to store, to hide}: abscond, Escondido, incondite, recondite || From L condere (pp. condītum, prp. condidi) : to put up, to put away, to hide From com– : with, together + –dere (comb. form) : to put, to set From IE *dhē– : to set, to put

condyl– {a hard lump or knob, knuckle}: condyle, condyloid, condyloma || From Gr kondylos : knuckle

confid– {to trust, to have faith in}: confidant, confide, confidence, confident, confidential comb. of con–1 + fid–1 || From L confīdere : to have complete trust, to be assured ( From con– (comb. form) From cum : together with + fīdere : to trust, to believe, to confide in) Toconfīdentia (gen. confidens) : confidence

congru– {to meet, to coincide}: congruent, incongruous || From L congruere (prp. congruens) : to come together, to meet, to coincide From con– : with, together + *gruere, *ruere : to fall From

conid– {dust, spores}: conidial, conidiophore, conidium || From ModL conidium : spore From Gr konis : dust From IE *koni– : dust From *keni– : dust, ashes

conn– {to know}: connoisseur, reconnaissance, reconnoiter comb. of com–1 + gno– same as cogn–, quaint– || From Fr From L cognoscere (pp. cognitus) : to become acquainted with, to get to know, to learn; of judges: to examine, to decide ( To cognitio : getting to know, study, knowledge) From cum : together with + gnoscere, noscere : to become acquainted with, to get knowledge of

consul–, consult– {to seek counsel, to consult, to deliberate, to consider}: consul, consular, consult, consultant, jurisconsult counsel || From L consulere (pp. consultum) : to deliberate, to consider To freq. consultare : to consider maturely, to ponder, to weigh

consult– see consul–

contr(a)– {against, opposite, complementary}: contraband, contrabass, contrabassoon, contraceptive, contradict, contraindicate, contralto, contrapuntal, contrary, Contras (Nicaragua), contrast, contravene, contretemps, control, controversy, incontrovertible extension of con–1 same as counter– || From L contrā From con– (comb. form) From cum : with, together + extension –tra as in extra : opposite, over against, on the opposite side

copi– {plenty}: copious, copy, cornucopia see also op–3 || From L cōpia : abundance, plenty ( From co– (comb. form) From cum : together with + Opis : goddess of abundance) To cōpiōsus : richly provided, wealthy

copro– {excrement}: coprolite, coprology, coprophagous, coprophilia || From Gr kopros : dung, excrement

copul–, coupl– {to join together}: accouplement, copula, copulate, couple, couplet comb. of co– + apt– || From L cōpula : link, bond From co– (comb. form) From cum : with, together + aptus : fitted to, fastened to To cōpulātio : union, connection •couple From OFr cople From cōpula

cor– {to run}: corral, corridor, succor Span. corrida same as cour–2, cours–, cur–2, curs– || From Fr From It correre : to run From L currere (pp. cursum) : to run •corral & corrida From Sp. From currere

corac– {a raven}: coraciiform, coracoid see also corv– || From Gr korax : raven To corax : raven species From IE *ker–, *kor– : echoic of harsh sounds, bird sounds

cord–1 {heart}: accord, accordance, accordion, concord, concordance, cordate, cordial, cordiform, discord, misericord, record same as cardi–, cour–1 || From L cordis, gen of cor : the heart: as seat of emotions, as seat of thought, hence: the mind, judgment

cord–2 {gut, string, cord}: cord (all senses), cordage, Cordelier, cordelle, cordillera, cordite, cordless, cordon bleu, cordon sanitaire, cordon, corduroy, cordwood || From OFr corde From L chorda From Gr chordē : catgut (usually as the string of an instrument), chord, cord

cori– {skin, hide, leather}: coriaceous, corium, excoriate currier || From L corium, corius : hide, skin, leather To coriārius : tanner

corn– {horn}: cavicorn, Capricorn, corn (skin growth), cornea, corneous, corner, cornet, cornucopia, cornuted, tricorn, unicorn unrelated: acorn || From L cornū : horn

corolla– {garland, money paid for a garland, gratuity, corollary}: corolla, corollary diminutive of coron– || From L corolla : little crown ( From dim. of L corona : crown) To corollārium : garland of flowers given to actors, hence: gift, gratuity

coron– {crown}: corona, Coronado, coronal, coronary, coronation, coroner, coronet diminutive form: corolla– || From L corona : crown, a thing resembling a crown

corp– {body}: corporal (of the body), corporation, corporeal, corps, corpse, corpulent, corpus, Corpus Christi, corpus delicti, corpuscle, esprit de corps, habeus corpus, incorporate corsage, corset unrelated: corporal (military rank) || From L corpus : body, substance

cortic– {tree bark, shell, outer covering, cortex}: cortical, corticate, corticoid, corticolous, corticosterone (cortisone), corticotropin cortex || From L corticis, gen. of cortex : bark, rind, shell

corv– {crow, raven}: Corvidae, corvina, corvine, corvus (crow genus), Corvus (constellation) unrelated: corvette, corvée see also corac– || From L corvus : raven, crow From IE *ker–, *kor– : echoic of harsh sounds, bird sounds

cosm– {order, world, universe}: cosmetic, cosmic, cosmogony, cosmology, cosmonaut, cosmopolitan, cosmorama, cosmos, macrocosm, microcosm || From Gr kosmos : universe, world, order

cost– {rib, side, coast}: accost, costa, costal, costate, costard, costermonger, costrel, intercostal coast, entrecôte Fr. côte || From L costa : rib, side

cot– {covering, shelter, house}: cot (cottage, shelter), cote, coterie, cotquean, cottage, cottier, dovecote, sheepcote || From ME & OE cot : hut, covered place

cott– {cooked}: biscotti, manicotti, ricotta, terra cotta biscuit same as coc– || From It cotta : baked, cooked From L cocta, fem. pp. of coquere : to cook thoroughly

cotyl– {hollow, cavity}: acotyledon, cotyledon, cotyloid, dicotyledon, epicotyl, hectocotylus, hypocotyl, monocotyledon, polycotyledon || From Gr kotylē : hollow, cavity

couch– {to lie down}: couch, couchant, couchette || From ME & OFr couche : bed, lair From coucher : to lie down From L collocare : to place From com– : with, together + locare : to place, to put, to set

coun– {with, together}: council, counsel, count (all senses), countenance extended form: counter– same as com–1, con–1 || From ME & OFr From L con– (comb. form) From cum : with, together From IE *kom– : beside, near, by, with

count–1 {to count}: account, accountable, count (to enumerate), countdown, counter (one who counts), counter (surface), discount, recount (to narrate) raconteur || From ME counten From OFr conter From L computare : to count, to reckon together, to calculate From cum : with, together + putare : to clear up, to reckon, to estimate, to consider

count–2 {rank of nobility}: count, county It. conte, Fr. comte unrelated: country || From ME counte From OFr conte From L cōmes (gen. cōmitus) : fellow-traveller, companion on a journey From com– : together with + īre (pp. itum) : to go From IE *ei– : to go

counter– {against, opposite, complementary}: counter (to oppose, to respond), counteract, counterattack, counterbalance, counterclockwise, counterespionage, counterfeit, counterinsurgent, countermand, countermeasure, counterpart, counterpoint, counterproductive, counterpunch, countersign, encounter country extension of coun– same as contra– || From ME countre– From OFr contre– From L contrā From con– (comb. form) From cum : with, together + extension –tra as in extra : opposite, over against, on the opposite side From IE *kom– : beside, near, by, with

coup– {to strike, to cut off}: coup, coup de foudre, coup de grâce, coup de main, coup de maître, coup d’état, coup de théâtre, coup d’oeil, coupé, coupon, decoupage, recoup cope (to deal with) It. colpo || From ME coupe & Fr coup, both From OFr colp From ML colpus From VL colapus From L colaphus : a blow, a box on the ear From Gr kolaphos

coupl– see copul–

cour–1 {heart}: courage, discourage, encourage Couer d’Alene same as cardi–, cord–1 || From ME & OFr From L cor : the heart: as seat of emotions, as seat of thought, hence: the mind, judgment

cour–2 {to run}: au courant, courante, courier same as cor–, cours–, cur–2, curs– || From OFr courrier From It. corriere, both From L currere (pp. cursum) : to run

cours– {to run}: concourse, course, courser, discourse, intercourse, recourse same as cor–, cour–2, cur–2, curs– || From Fr course From OFr cours From L cursus, a running From cursum, pp of currere : to run

court– {enclosure, court}: court (all senses), courteous, courtesan, courtesy, courthouse, courtier, courtly, court-martial, Courtney, courtroom, courtship, courtyard cohort same as curt–1 || From OFr From VL curtis From L cohortis gen. of cohors : enclosure, yard—especially for cattle, hence: troop, company

coutr– {to sew}: accouter, accouterment, couture, couturier, haute couture suture || From Fr couture : sewing, seam From VL consutura : seam From L consutus, pp. of consuere : to sew, to stitch, to join From con– (comb. form) From cum : together, with + suere : to sew To sūtūra : seam, suture

cover– {to cover}: cover, coverage, coverlet, covert, coverup, discover, uncover unrelated: recover compare overt– see also per–2 || From ME coveren From OFr covrir From L cooperire From operire : to cover

cracy–, crat–1 {power, rule}: aristocrat, bureaucrat, democracy, Democrat, mobocracy, ochlocracy, plutocrat, technocracy, theocracy || • –cracy From Fr –cracie From ML –cratia From Gr –kratia : rule From kratos : rule, strength • –crat From Fr –crate From Gr kratēs From kratos

cras–, crat–2 {to mix, to temper}: crasis, crater, idiosyncrasy || From L crater : mixing bowl, mouth of a volcano From Gr kratēr From kerannynai : to mix

crass– {thick}: crass, incrassate || From L crassus : thick, dense

crat– see cracy–, cras–

cre– {flesh}: creodont, creosol, creosote, pancreas || From Gr kreas : flesh

creant– {believer}: miscreant, recreant same as cred– || From OFr From L crēdere : to trust, to believe

creas– see cres–

creat– {to bring forth, to produce}: create, creation, creativity, procreate, recreation creole || From L creatus, pp. of creare : to create, to produce To creātor : creator, maker, founder • creole From Fr créole From Sp criollo From Port crioulo : native to the region, born at home From criar : to rear, to nourish From L creare

cred– {to believe}: accredit, credence, credentials, credenza, credible, credit, creditor, credo, credulous, discredit, incredible creed same as creant– || From L crēdere (pp. crēditum) : to trust, to believe, to entrust a person with a thing, to lend money To crēditor : creditor; crēdulus : credulous; crēdibilis : credible, trustworthy

crem–1 {to grow}: decrement, increment same as cres–, cret–1, cru– || From L –crēmentum (comb. form) : to grow, to increase From L crescere : to grow, to increase

crem–2 {to separate}: excrement, recrement same as cret–2 see also cern–, crin–2, cris–, crit– || From L –crēmentum (comb. form) : something separated From cernere (pp. crētum) : to separate, to sift

cren– {notch, groove}: crenate, crenature, crenel, crenellate, crenulate || From VL crena : notch, grove

crep– {to rattle, to creak}: crepitation, decrepit, decrepitate, discrepancy || From L crepitare : to rattle, to creak, to crackle From freq. of crepare (pp. crepitum) : to rattle, to creak, to crackle

cres–, creas– {to grow}: concrescence, crescendo, crescent, decrease, decrescendo, decrescent, increase, increscent same as crem–1, cret–1, cru– || From L crescere : to grow, to increase • –crease words From OFr From L

cret–1 {to grow}: accrete, concrete, concretion same as crem–1, cres–, cru– || From L crētum, pp. of crescere : to grow, to increase

cret–2 {to separate, to discern}: discrete, discretion, excrete, secret, secretariat, secretary, secrete, secretion, secretive discreet same as crem–2 see also cern–, crin–2, cris–, crit– || From L crētum, pp. of cernere : to separate, to distinguish

crimin–1 {crime, judgement}: criminal, criminology, decriminalize, incriminate, recrimination crime || From L crīminis, gen of crīmen : accusation, charge, the crime with which a person is charged

crimin–2 {to divide, to distinguish, to separate}: discriminate, indiscriminate see also cern– || From L discrīminare : to separate, to divide From discrīmen (gen. discrīminus) : dividing line, distinction, difference From discernere : to sever, to separate, to distinguish From dis– : apart + cernere : to separate, to distinguish

crin–1 {hair}: crinite, crinoline || From L crīnis : a hair or the hair of the head To crīnītus : hairy, having long hair

crin–2 {to separate}: apocrine, eccrine, endocrine, holocrine see also cern–, crem–2, cret–2, cris–, crit– || From Gr krinein : to separate

crin–3 {lily}: crinoid, Crinoidea, crinum, encrinite || From Gr krinon : lily

cris– {to separate to discern}: crisis, hyprocrisy same as crin–2, crit– see also cern–, crem–2, cret–2 || From Gr krisis From krinein : to separate, to discern

crit– {to separate to discern}: criterion, critic, critical, criticize, critique, diacritical, hematocrit, hypercritical, hypocrite same as crin–2, cris– see also cern–, crem–2, cret–2 || From Gr kritikos : critical, able to discern (or From kritēs : judge) From krinein : to discern, to separate

croch– {hook, hence: bent}: crochet croquet, crosier, crotchet, encroach || From ME & OFr crochet From dim. of croc : hook

crout– {crust}: crouton, en croûte same as crust– || From Fr croûte : crust From L crusta : crust, rind, or shell of a thing

cru– {to increase, to grow}: accrue, recruit same as crem–1, cres–, cren–1 || From OFr From L crescere : to grow, to increase

cruc– {cross}: crucial, cruciate, crucifer, crucifix, crucifixion, cruciform, crucify, excruciating, Las Cruces, Rosicrucian cruise, crusade, crux || From L crucis, gen. of crux : cross

crud– {raw, unrefined, in a natural state}: crude, crudités, recrudesce ecru || From L crūdus : uncooked, raw, unprepared, harsh, rough, cruel To crūdescere : to become hard, violent To crūdēlis : unfeeling, cruel To OFr cruel : cruel

crust– {shell}: crust, crustacean, crustaceous, crusty, encrust same as crout– || From L crusta : the crust, rind, or shell of a thing

cryo– {extreme cold, frost}: cryobiology, cryogenics, cryolite, cryometer, cryonics, cryophyte, cryoscopy, cryostat, cryosurgery || From Gr kryos : cold, frost

cryph– see crypt–

crypt–, cryph– {hidden}: Apocrypha, apocryphal, crypt, cryptic, cryptogram, cryptology, cryptozoology, decrypt, encrypt, procryptic krypton || From Gr kryptos : hidden From kryptein : to hide

cten– {comb teeth, comblike}: ctenidium, ctenoid, ctenophore || From Gr ktenos, gen. of kteis : comb

cub–1 {to lie down}: concubine, cubicle, incubate, incubus, succubus unrelated: cubit, cubbyhole see also cumb– || From L cubare : to lie down, to go to bed

cub–2 {cube}: cube, cubic, cubiform, cubism, cuboid unrelated: cubicle, cubit, cubbyhole || From L cubus From Gr kybos : cube, die, vertebra

cuck– {cuckoo}: cuckold, cuckoo coccyx || From ME From OFr coucou, cucu From echoic • cuckold From in Old World folklore the female cuckoo is thought to change mates frequently

cul–1 {diminutive}: homunculus, majuscule, minuscule, molecule, opuscule, reticule, retinaculum, ridicule, tuberculosis || From L –culus, –culum : a diminutive-forming suffix

cul–2 {posterior, rump, bottom}: bascule, cul-de-sac, culet, culottes recoil || From L culus : the posterior, bottom (of the human anatomy)

culp– {guilt, blame}: culpa, culpable, culprit, exculpate, inculpable, inculpate, mea culpa || From L culpa : fault, blame To culpare : to find fault, to blame

cult– {to cultivate, to dwell, to inhabit}: acculturation, agriculture, cult, cultivate, culture, horticulture, viticulture colony unrelated: occult same as col–2 || From L cultus : tilling, cultivation, tending From cultum, pp. of colere : to cultivate, to till, to tend; to live in a place, to dwell; to pay respect, to honor To colōnia : farm, estate, dwelling; colōnus : farmer, colonist, inhabitant

cum– {with}: magna cum laude, summa cum laude, vade mecum same as com–1 || From L cum : with, together From IE *kom– : beside, near, by, with

cumb– {to lie down}: accumbent, incumbent, procumbent, recumbent, succumb see also cub–1 || From L –cumbere (comb. form) From cubare : to lie down

cumbr– {burden}: cumber, cumbersome, cumbrance, disencumber, encumber, encumbrance || From ME combren From acombren From OFr encombrer From combre : obstruction, barrier From Gaulish

cumul– {heap, mass}: accumulate, cumulative, cumulus || From L cumulus : heap, pile, mass To cumulare (pp. cumulatus) : to heap up, to pile up

cune– {wedge}: cuneal, cuneate, cuneiform coin || From L cuneus : wedge, wedge-shaped

cup–1 {to take, to seize}: nuncupative, occupant, occupation, occupy, preoccupy, recuperate recover same as cap–1, ceit–, ceiv–, cept–, cip– || From L –cupare (in comb.) From capere : to take, to seize, to catch

cup–2 {desire}: concupiscence, Cupid, cupidity covet || From L cupidus : desirous, eager, keen From cupere : to desire, to long for, to wish for To cupido : longing, desire To Cupido : Cupid, the god of love

cup–3 {cup, cup-shaped}: cup, cupbearer, cupboard, cupcake, cupful, cupel, cupola, teacup || From ME & OE cuppe From LL cuppa From L cupa : tub, cask

cupr– {copper, metal of Cyprus}: cupreous, cupric, cupriferous, cuprite, cupronickel, cuprous, cuprum || From LL cuprum From L Cyprium aes : Cyprian brass, brass of Cyprus (copper)

cur–1 {care}: accurate, curable, curate, curator, cure, curette, curettage, curious, incurable, manicure, pedicure, procurator, procure, secure, security, sinecure proctor, proxy || From L cura : care, concern, attention, trouble To cūrare : to care for, to pay attention to, to trouble about To cūrātor : one who takes care, curator; cūriōsus : careful, attentive, inquisitive, curious To cūriōsitās : inquisitiveness, curiosity

cur–2 {to run}: concur, concurrent, current, currency, curriculum, extracurricular, incur, occur, recur same as cor–, cour–2, cours–, curs– || From L currere : to run

curia– {court}: amicus curiae, curia || From L cūria : one of 30 divisions of Roman patricians To the meeting-place of the curia To the meeting-place of the Roman senate

curs– {to run}: cursive, cursor, cursory, discursive, excursion, precursor, recursive corsair same as cor–, cour–2, cours–, cur–2 || From L cursus, a running From cursum, pp. of currere : to run To freq. cursare : to run here and there To cursor : runner

curt–1 curtilage, Curtis, curtsy same as court– || From ME From OFr From LL cortis From VL curtis From L cohors (gen. cohortis) : enclosure, yard—especially for cattle, hence: troop, company

curt–2 {to cut short}: curt, curtail, curtal, curtate || From L curtus : short To curtare : to shorten, to abbreviate

curv– {curve}: curvaceous, curvature, curve, curvet, curvilinear, incurve, recurve || From L curvus : bent, bowed, arched, curved To curvātūra : a curving, arching

cus– {to charge, reason, cause, lawsuit}: accusation, accusative, accuse, excuse, inexcusable, recusant same as caus– || From L –cūsare (comb. form) From causa : a cause, reason, judicial process, lawsuit

cusp– {point}: bicuspid, cusp, cuspid, cuspidate, tricuspid unrelated: cuspidor || From L cuspis (gen. cuspidus) : point, pointed end, spear

cuss– {to shake}: concussion, discuss, percussion, repercussion, succussion || From L –cussum (pp. of –cutere) (comb. form) From quatere : to shake, to agitate, to trouble

custom– {usual practice, custom}: accustom, custom, customary, customer, customs costume see also suet– || From OFr costume From L consuētūdo : custom, usage, habit From consuescere (pp. consuētum) : to accustom, to habituate From cum : with, together + suescere : to become accustomed; akin to suus (stem sui–) : one’s own

cut– {skin}: cutaneous, cuticle, cutin, cutis, subcutaneous || From L cutis : skin, esp. skin of a person To dim. cutīcula : the skin, cuticle

cyan– {blue}: cyan, cyanide, cyanimide, cyanine, cyanosis, cyanotype, phycocyanin || From ModL From Gr kyanos : blue

cyber– {to steer, to control, to guide, to control}: cybernation, cybernetics, cyberpunk, cyberspace cyborg see also govern– || From cybernetics (coined 1948 by Norbert Wiener) : human and computer control systems From Gr kybernētēs : helmsman From kybernan : to steer, to govern

cycl– {wheel, circle}: bicycle, cyclamate, cycle, cyclic, cyclist, cyclone, cyclotron, encyclical, encyclopedia, epicycloid, hypocycloid, motorcycle, recycle, tricycle, unicycle Greek kuklos, thus: Ku Klux Klan || From LL cyclus From Gr kyklos : circle, cycle

cym– {a wave}: cyma, cymatium, cyme, cymograph, cymoid, cymophane, cymose || From Gr kymos : something swollen, a billow, a wave

cymb– {boat, hollow of a vessel}: cymbal, cymbalom, cymbidium || From L cymba, cumba : small boat, skiff From Gr kymbē : boat, hollow of a vessel

cyn– {dog}: apocynaceous, cynic, cynical, cynosure || From Gr kyōn : hound

cyprin– {carp}: cyprinodont, cyprinoid || From Gr kyprinos : carp

cyst– {sac, bladder, cyst}: blastocyst, cyst, cystectomy, cystic, cysticercus, cystine, cystocarp, cystocele, cystolith, cystoscope, cystotomy, encyst, pneumocystis, sporocyst || From Gr kystis : sac, bladder

cyt– {cell}: cytochemistry, cytokeratin, cytokinesis, cytology, cytoplasm, leukocyte, lymphocyte, oocyte || From Gr kytos : a hollow

Unattested, hypothesized
† Unknown origin

332 entries found.

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