The Cognātarium

e– {Generally indicates removal, or outward direction or position; hence: out, outside, from out, without}: ebullient, ecru, edentate, edict, edit, educate, educe, egest, egregious, egress, ejaculate, eject, elaborate, élan, elapse, elate, elect, elegant, elegit, elevate, elide, eliminate, elite, elocution, elongate, eloquent, elucidate, elude, elusive, emaciate, emanate, emancipate, emasculate, emend, emerge, emergency, emeritus, emigrate, eminent, emission, emit, emollient, emotion, emulsion, emunctory, enormous, enumerate, enunciate, eradicate, erase, erect, erode, eruct, erupt, evacuate, evade, evaginate, evaluate, evanescent, evaporate, evasive, evection, event, eventual, evert, evict, evidence, evince, eviscerate, evocative, evoke, evolution, evolve, evulsion same as ex– || From L & Gr ex– : out, outward, outside; used before b, d, g, j, l, m, n, r, v

ease– {comfort, convenience}: disease, ease, easement, easy malaise || From ME ese From OFr aise From VL : ease, comfort

east– {dawn, hence: the east}: east, Easter Austria || From ME est From OE east (akin to Ger osten, ON austr) From Gmc root aust– : dawn

eau– {water}: Eau Claire, eau de Cologne, eau de Nile, eau de vie see also aqua– || From Fr From L aqua : water

ec– {out, out of, outside}: anecdote, ecbolic, eccentric, ecclesi–, éclat, eclectic, eclipse, ecstasy, ectomy– extended form: ecto– see also ex– || From L & Gr ex– : outside, outwards, without; used before c or s

ecclesi– {church}: ecclesia, Ecclesiastes, ecclesiastical, ecclesiolatry, ecclesiology || From L ecclesia : an assembly of people (in LL(Ec) assembly of Christians) From Gr ekklēsia : assembly From ekklētos : summoned From ekkalein : to summon From ek– : out + kalein : to call

ecdys– {to strip off}: ecdysiast, ecdysis, ecdysone || From Gr ekdysis : a getting out, a stripping From ekdyein : to strip off From ek– : out of + dyein : to enter

echin– {spiny, prickly}: echinate, echinococcus, echinoderm, echinoid, echinus || From Gr echinos : sea urchin, hedgehog

ec(o)– {house, habitat, environment}: androecium, autoecious, dioecious, ecesis, ecology, econometrics, economics, economy, ecosystem, ecumenical, monoecious diocese see also oky– || From LL oeco– From Gr oiko– From oikos : house From IE *weik– : house, settlement

ecto– {outside}: ectoderm, ectomorph, ectopia, ectopic, ectoplasm extension of ec– compare endo– || From ModL From Gr ektos : outside

ectomy– {a surgical cutting out}: appendectomy, cystectomy, hysterectomy, lobectomy, mastectomy, nephrectomy, tonsillectomy, vasectomy comb. of ec– + tom– || From Gr ektomē : a cutting out From ek– : out + tomē : a cutting From temnein : to cut

ed–1 {to build, house, building}: edifice, edify aedile || From L aedēs : dwelling, house, temple, building To aedificium : a building

ed–2 {to eat}: comedo, edacious, edacity, edible same as es–2 || From L edere : to eat To edācitās : gluttony, greediness

ed–3 {wealth, happiness}: Edgar, Edith, Edmond, Edward, Edwin || From OE ead : prosperity, happiness From Gmc root

ed–4 {delight, pleasure}: Eden, Edna || From Heb eden : delight

edaph– {soil, earth, ground}: edaphic, edaphology || From Gr edaphos : soil, earth, bottom From IE sed– : to sit To Gr hedra : seat, chair

edema– {swelling, tumor}: edema, myxedema || From Gr oidēma : swelling, tumor

edit– {to give out, to publish}: edit, edition, editor, editorial, editorialize part of dition– || From L ēditum, pp. of ēdere : to put forth, to give out ( From e– (comb form of ex–) : out + –dere (comb. form) From dare : to give) To ēditio (gen. ēditiōnis) : a putting forth, a publishing

eg– see heg–

ego– {I, self}: alter ego, ego, egocentric, egoism, egomania, egotism || From L ego : personal pronoun I; akin to Gr egō : I

egor– {assembly, place of assembly, to speak in assembly}: allegory, category, paregoric same as agor– || From Gr agoreuein From ēgor : to speak in public From agor : marketplace, assembly

eid– {image, form}: eidetic, eidolon, kaleidoscope same as id–, oid– || From Gr eidos : what is seen, shape, form

el– {God [combining form, in names of Hebraic origin]}: Ariel, Babel, Bethel, Daniel, Elias, Elihu, Elijah, Eliot, Elisha, Elizabeth, Ellis, Elohim, Emmanuel, Gabriel, Gamaliel, Hazel, Ishmael, Israel, Joel, Lemuel, Michael, Michelle, Nathaniel, Raphael, Samuel Span. Manuel || From Heb elohim, pl. of eloah : God

electr– {shining, sparkling}: Electra, electric, electroencephalogram, electrode, electron, electronic || From L electrum : amber (amber produces sparks when rubbed) From Gr ēlektron : shining To Electra : Greek and Roman goddess : “The Shining One”

em–, empt– {to obtain, to take, to buy}: ademption, caveat emptor, exemplary, exemplify, exempt, peremptory, preempt, premium, redeem, redemption irredentist unrelated: empty more at prompt– see also sample–, sum– || From L emere (pp. emptum) : to take, to buy, to purchase To emptor : buyer; praemium : that which is taken first, the pick From prae– : before + emi (prp. of emere)

eme–1 {unit of language structure}: grapheme, lexeme, morpheme, phoneme, sememe, taxeme || From Fr –ème : unit, sound To phonème : phoneme

eme–2 {superlative word form}: extreme, supreme same as im– see also Appendix B || From L superlative word form: extrēmus, superl. of exter : outside; suprēmus, superl. of superus : above

emia–, emic– {condition or state of the blood}: anemia, anemic, anoxemia, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, ischemia, leukemia, septicemia, uremia same as hemato–, hemo– || From ModL From Gr –aimia (comb. form) From haima (gen. haimatos) : blood From

emic– see emia–

empt– see em–

enchym– {infusion, to pour in}: collenchyma, mesenchyme, parenchyma, prosenchyma, sclerenchyma || From Gr enchyma : a steeping, infusion From enchein : to pour in From en– : in + cheein : to pour

end(o)– {inside, within}: endergonic, endermic, endocardium, endocrine, endogamy, endomorph, endothecium, endothelium compare ecto–, ex– || From Gr endon : within

enn– {year}: biennial, biennium, centennial, millennium, perennial, quinquennium same as ann– || From L –ennium (comb. form) From annus : year

ent–, sent–1 {to be}: absent, entity, essential, present, represent same as es–1 || From L esse (prp. ens, gen. entis) : to be

entom– {insect}: entomology, entomophagous, entomophilous, entomostracan comb. of en– (in) + tom– (to cut) || From Gr entoma (zōa) : notched (cut in) animals From en– : in + tomos : cut From temnein : to cut; insects are notched or divided (cut) into segments

entr–1 {inside, between}: enter, enterprise, entertain, entrance, entrecôte, entrée, entrepôt, entrepreneur, entresol, entry same as intr– see also entr–2 || From Fr entr– : inside, between From L inter– : inside, within

entr–2 {intestines}: coelenterate, dysentery, enteric, enteritis, enteron, enterostomy, entrails, mesentery see also entr–1 || From Gr enteron : intestine From enter– : within, inside

eo– {dawn, hence: early}: eobiont, Eocene, eohippus, eolith, Eos, eosin || From Gr ēōs : dawn To Gr & L Ēōs : goddess of dawn, sister of Heliōs, sun god

ep– {word, speech, song}: epic, epos, epopee, orthoepy || From L & Gr epos : word, song

epeir– {continent, mainland}: epeirogeny || From Gr ēpeiros : land, mainland, continent From IE *āpero– : shore

eph– see epi–

ep(i)–, eph– {on, upon, over, above, behind, beside, among}: eparch, epenthesis, epexegesis, ephedrine, ephemeral, ephemeris, ephemeron, epiblast, epicanthus, epicardium, epicene, epicenter, epicycle, epidemic, epidermis, epididymis, epidote, epiglottis, epigram, epigraph, epilepsy, epilogue, epinephrine, Epiphany, epiphyte, Episcopal, episode, epistasis, epistemology, epistle, epistyle, epitaph, epithelium, epithet, epitome, epoch, epode, eponym, epoxy epi– becomes ep– or eph– before a vowel || From Gr epi : at, on to, upon, over, besides

equ–1 {even, equal}: adequate, equable, equal, equalitarian, equality, equalize, equanimity, equate, equation, equator, equatorial, equidistant, equilateral, equilibrium, equinox, equitable, equity, equivalent, equivocal, equivocate Ecuador, iniquity || From ME From L aequus : equal, even, level To aequare : to make equal, to equal, to make level; aequitās : equality, uniformity; aequālitās : evenness, equality

equ–2 {horse}: equerry, equestrian, equestrienne, equine, equisetum, equitation || From L equus : horse To equester (adj.) : equestrian; equitare : to ride on horseback

er– {love}: Erasmus, Erato, Eratosthenes, erogenous, Eros, erotic, erotica, pederasty || From Gr erōs (gen. erōtos) : love To erōtikos : arousing love; Erōs : Greek god of love, identified with Roman Cupid; eran : to love To eratos : beloved To Eratō : the Muse of erotic lyric poetry

erc– {compulsion, application of force}: coerce, exercise || From L –ercere (comb. form) From arcēre : to shut in, to confine, to hinder, to prevent

erg– {work}: allergy, anergy, endergonic, energumen, energy, erg, ergonomic, exergonic, synergy argon, George same as urg– see also organ– || From Gr ergon : work

erior– {farther in the given direction}: anterior, exterior, inferior, interior, posterior, superior, ulterior see also Appendix B || From L comparative word form: exterior, compar. of exter : outside; inferior, compar. of inferus : below

ernal– {location in reference to direction}: external, infernal, internal, supernal see also Appendix B || From L noun-forming word form: externus : that which is outside, external; internus : that which is inside, internal

err– {to wander, to go astray}: aberrant, aberration, err, errant, errata, erratic, erroneous, error arrant unrelated: errand || From L errare : to wander, to stray To error : a wandering about, a wavering, an uncertainty; errāticus : wandering, erratic

ert– {activity, movement}: inert, inertia unrelated: exert same as art– || From L iners (gen. inertus) : untrained, unskillful, inactive, idle From in– : not + ars (gen. artis) : skill, craft

erythr– {red}: erythrism, erythrite, erythroblast, erythrocyte, erythromycin, erythropoiesis, phycoerythrin || From ModL From Gr erythros : red

es–1 {to be}: essence, essential, id est, interest, quintessential is Ger. ist Fr. est Span. esta same as ent– || From L esse : to be; interest From inter : between + est : 3rd pers. sing. (it is) : it concerns, it is of importance

es–2 {to eat}: comestible, escarole, esculent, esurient same as ed–2 || From L esca : food, victuals ( From edere (pp. esum) : to eat) To esculentus : edible; ēsurire (pp. ēsuriens) : to be hungry

esce– {to begin, to become}: adolescent, coalesce, convalesce, crescent, fluorescent, incandescent, luminescent, phosphorescent, recrudesce, quiescent, senescent || From L –escere : verb-forming suffix : to become

eso– {within, inward}: esoteric, esotropia || From Gr esō (compar. esōteros) : within From es, eis : into From IE *ens– From *en– : in

esth–, aesth– {sensory perception}: anesthesia, aesthete, aesthesia, esthesiometer, esthetic, kinesthesia unrelated: Esther || From Gr aisthēsis : perception, sense-impression From aisthanesthai : to perceive To aisthētikos : sensitive

estim– {to estimate, to evaluate, to value}: estimate, inestimable esteem || From L aestimare : to appraise, to evaluate, to rate, to value a thing To aestimātio : an appraisal

estiv– {summer}: estival, estivate, estivation compare hibern–, vern– || From L aestīvus : relating to summer From aestās : summer; akin to aestus : heat

estr– {madness, frenzy}: anestrus, diestrus, estriol, estrogen, estrone, estrous, estrus || From L oestrus : gadfly, horsefly, frenzy

et– {age}: coetaneous, eternal, eternity sempiternal same as ev– || From L aetās : an age, a lifetime From contr. of old aevitās From aevum, aevus : eternity, time, lifetime, period of time

eth–1 {moral custom}: cacoethes, ethical, ethics, ethology, ethos, unethical || From Gr ēthos : character, custom

eth–2 {ether}: ethane, ethanol, ether, ethereal, ethyl, ethylene, polyethylene || From L aether : the upper air From Gr aithēr From aithein : to kindle, to burn

ethel– {noble}: Ethel, Ethelbert, Ethelred same as al–2, adel– || From OE æthele : noble; akin to OHG adal : nobility

ethn– {race of people}: ethnarch, ethnic, ethnicity, ethnobotany, ethnocentric, ethnography || From Gr ethnos : a nation, a people

etym– {origin of a word}: etymology, etymon || From Gr etymon : literal sense of a word, etymology From neut. of etymos : true

eu– {good, well}: eucalyptus, Eucharist, Eudora, Eugene, eugenics, Eulalia, eulogy, Eunice, eupeptic, euphemism, euphonious, euphoria, Euphrates, eurhythmic, Eustace, eutectic, euthanasia, euthenics, eutherian, euxenite Evangeline, evangelism compare caco– || From Gr eu– : good, well

eur– {to discover}: eureka!, heuristic || From Gr heuriskein : to find, to discover

eur(y)– {wide}: aneurysm, euroky, Eurydice, euryhygric, euryphagous, eurytropic compare steno– || From Gr eurys : wide, broad

euvr–, oeuvr– {work}: hors d’oeuvre, maneuver (Brit. sp. manoeuvre) || From Fr oeuvre : work From L opera : a work, a labor; From opus : work, a finished work

ev– {age}: coeval, longevity, medieval, primeval same as et– || From L aevum, aevus : eternity, time, lifetime, period of time, an age

ex– {Generally indicates removal, or outward direction or position; hence: out, outside, from out, without. Also used as an intensive.}: exact, exalt, examine, example, exasperate, ex cathedra, excavate, exceed, excel– , except, excerpt, excess, exchange, excise, excite, exclaim, exclude, excommunicate, excrete, excruciating, excursion, excuse, execute, exegesis, exempt, exercise, exert, exhale, exhaust, exhibit, exhilarate, exhort, exhume, ex–husband, exile, exist, exit, ex libris, exodus, exonerate, exorbitant, exorcise, exotic, expand, expatriate, expect, expectorate, expedient, expedition, expel, expend, exper– , expire, explain, expletive, explicit, explode, exploit, explore, exponent, export, expose, ex post facto, ex–president, express, expropriate, expunge, expurgate, exquisite, extant, extemporaneous, extend, exterminate, extinct, extol, extort, extract, extradite, extricate, extrude, exuberant, exude, exult, exurb, inexorable extended form: extr– same as e–, exo– see also ec– compare in– ex– becomes ef– before f; e– before b, d, g, j, l, m, n, r, v; often ec– before c, s; es– in words of French origin; before stems beginning with s the initial s is sometimes dropped: execrate, exude, exult || From L & Gr ex– : out, outside, outward, from out, from

excel– {to raise, to go higher}: excel, excellent, excelsior, Gloria in Excelsis Deo || From L excellere : to stand out, to be distinguished, to excel To excellens : high, lofty, distinguished

exo– {outside, outward, external}: exobiology, exocarp, exocrine, exoderm, exodontia, exogamy, oxogenous, exoskeleton, exosphere, exospore, exothermic, exotoxin same as ex– || From Gr exo– : outside of, out, from

exper– {to try, to learn by trying}: experience, experiment, expert, expertise see also pir– || From L experīrī : to try, to test, to know by having tried, to know by experience To experientia : trial, testing; experīmentum : experience, proof from experience; expertus : tested, approved, experienced

extr– {outside, outward}: exterior, external, extra, extra–, extracurricular, extramarital, extraneous, extraordinary, extrapolate, extrasensory, extraterrestrial, extravagant, extravehicular, extreme, extremist, extremity, extrinsic, extro–, extrorse, extrovert extension of ex– compare intr– see also Appendix B || From L exter : outward; compar. exterior : outer; superl. extrēmus : outermost

Unattested, hypothesized
† Unknown origin

76 entries found.

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