The Cognātarium

gage– {pledge, surety}: dégagé, disengage, engage, engagé, gage (pledge), mortgage || From ME From OFr gage : pledge

gain– {against, opposite}: again, against, gainsay || From OE gegn : direct, facing, opposite; akin to Ger gegen : opposite, against

gal– {merriment, to make merry, to rejoice}: gala, gallant, regale || From Fr or It : to make merry, to rejoice From

galact–, galaxy– {milk}: galactagogue, galactic, galaxy see also lact– || From Gr galaktikos : milky From gala (gen. galaktos) : milk From IE glak– : milk

galaxy– see galact–

gall–1 {an ancient type of ship}: galleass, galleon, galley, galliot || ult. From Gr galaia : a kind of ship From galeos : shark From galeē : weasel (referring to its speed)

gall–2 {France}: Gallic, gallium, Gallophile || From L Gallus : a Gaul From Galli : the Gallic peoples of Gaul

galli– {hen, cock}: Galliformes, gallinaceous, gallinule, gallium || From L gallus : cock, rooster To gallīna : hen

gam– {marriage, union}: allogamy, bigamy, endogamy, exogamy, gamete, gamogenesis, misogamy, monogamous, polygamy || From Gr gamos : marriage

gamb– {leg, to leap}: gamb, gambado, gambit, gambol, gambrel || From dial. Fr gambe (Fr jambe) From ML gamba : leg From Gr kampē : a turn, bend

gar–1 {to watch over, to protect}: garment, garnish, garnishee, garniture, garret, garrison see also war–, ward– || From OFr garnir : to furnish, to protect

gar–2 {spear}: Edgar, garfish, garlic, Gary Oscar, gore (to pierce) see also ger–2 || From OE gar : spear

gar–3 {sharp}: alegar, vinegar, vinegarroon see also ac– || From OFr aigre : sour From L ācris, gen. of ācer : sharp, cutting From IE *ak– : sharp

garg– {throat}: gargle, gargoyle same as gurg– || From OFr gargouille : throat, waterspout From echoic base

gastr– {stomach}: gastric, gastritis, gastrointestinal, gastrolith, gastronome, gastronomic, gastropod || From Gr gastēr : stomach

gel– {to freeze}: congelation, gel, gelatin, gelid, gelignite, regelation congeal, jelly || From L gelo : to freeze To gelidus : icy cold, freezing

gemin– {twins}: geminate, Gemini, trigeminal || From L geminus : twin, double To geminare : to double, to repeat

gen–1 {to give birth, to be born}: antigen, carcinogen, congenial, congenital, degenerate, engender, erogenous, Eugene, eugenics, gene, generate, generation, generator, generous, genesis, genetic, genial, –genic, genie, genital, genitive, genius, genuine, hallucinogen, hydrogen, indigenous, ingenious, ingénue, ingenuity, ingenuous, nitrogen, orogeny, oxygen, palingenesis, pathogenic, phosgene, photogenic, primogenitor, primogeniture, progenitor, progeny same as gen–2 see also germ–, gn– || From L gignere ( From geno) (pp. genitum) : to beget, to bear, to bring forth To genus (gen. generis) : birth, descent, origin, race, family, kind, class • also From Gr –genēs : born; genea : race, descent; genos : race, family, kind; all From gignesthai : to be born, to become

gen–2 {born into a family, hence: type, family, kind}: gendarme, gender, genealogy, general, generic, genocide, genre, gens, genteel, gentile, gentle, gentleman, genus, heterogeneous, homogeneous, homogenize, homogenous, miscegenation, sui generis same as gen–1 see also germ–, gn– || From L gignere ( From geno) (pp. genitum) : to beget, to bear, to bring forth To genus (gen. generis) : birth, descent, origin, race, family, kind, class • also From Gr –genēs : born; genea : race, descent; genos : race, family, kind; all From gignesthai : to be born, to become

gen–3, gint– {times ten}: nonagenarian, octogenarian, quinquegenarian, septuagenarian, Septuagint, sexagenary || From L suffix –ginta : times ten To n. suffix times-tenth, e.g. seventieth

genu– {knee}: genu, genuflect by some accounts, genuine belongs here || From L genu : knee

ge(o)– {planet Earth; hence, earth, ground}: apogee, epigeal, geode, geodesic, geodetic, geography, geology, geometry, geophysics, geopolitics, George, Georgia, georgic, geothermal, hypogeal, perigee || From Gr geō– From gaia : the earth To Gaea, Gaia : a goddess, the personification of the earth

ger–1 {to carry}: exaggerate, gerund same as gest– || From L gerere (pp. gestum) : to carry, to bear

ger–2 {spear}: Gerald, Gerard, Germany, Gertrude, Roger see also gar–2 || From OHG ger : spear

germ– {germ, bud, sprout, embryo, hence: born, related}: germ, Germain, –german (as in cousin-german), germane, germicide, germinal, germinate see also gen–1, gen–2, gn– || From L germānus : having the same parents, genuine From germen : embryo, bud, sprout

ger(ont)– {old age}: ageratum, geriatric, Geritol™, gerontocracy, gerontology, progeria || From Gr gēron (stem geront–) : old man

gest– {to carry}: beau geste, congest, digest, egest, gestation, gesticulate, gesture, ingest, suggest register same as ger–1 || From L gestum, pp. of gerere : to carry, to bear

get– {to take}: beget, forget, get || From ME geten From ON geta : to get, to beget

ghast– {ghost}: aghast, ghastly Ger. Geist || From OE gæstan : to frighten From gast : ghost; akin to OHG Geist : ghost

giga– {giant, one billion}: giga– (10⁹), gigahertz, gigantesque, gigantic, gigantism, Gigantomachy, gigaton giant || From Gr gigas (gen. gigantos) : giant To L Gigās (gen. Gigantis) : in Greek and Roman mythology, a race of giants, sons of the Earth and Tartarus

gint– see gen–3

gir– {to spin}: autogiro, girasol same as gyr– || From It girare : to turn From LL gyrare From gyrus : circle From Gr gyros : circle

gird–, girt– {to enclose, to encircle}: gird, girder, girdle, girt, girth || From ME girden, girten : to enclose, to encircle

girt– see gird–

gl– {to shine, to gleam, joyful}: glabrous, glad, glade, glance (ore), glare, glass, glaze, glazier, gleam, glean, glee, glimmer, glimpse, glint, glisten, glitter, gloaming, gloat, gloom, glossy, glow, glum || all ult. From IE *ghel– : to shine

glabr– {smooth, bald}: glabrate, glabrous glabella (dim. form) || From L glaber : bald, smooth

glac– {ice}: glacé, glacial, glaciate, glacier, glaciology, glacis || From L glaciēs : ice To glaciare : to freeze; glaciālis : icy

gladi– {sword}: gladiate, gladiator, gladiolus || From L gladius : sword To gladiātor : gladiator

glauc– {to gleam}: glaucoma, glauconite, glaucous || From Gr glaukos : bright blue, bluish gray, gleaming

gliss– {to slide, to glide}: glissade, glissando || From Fr glisser : to slide, to glide From Frank

glob– {sphere}: glob, globe, globetrotter, globular, globule, globulin, hemoglobin || From L globus : ball, globe, sphere; akin to glomus : ball, sphere

glomer– {ball}: agglomerate, conglomerate, glomerate, glomerule || From L glomus (gen. glomeris) : ball, sphere; akin to globus : ball, sphere

glori– {glory}: inglorious, gloria, Gloria, Gloria in Excelsis Deo, Gloria Patri, glorify, gloriole, glorious; glory || From L glōria : fame, renown, glory

gloss– {tongue}: gloss (words), glossa, glossary, glossitis, glossolalia, xenoglossia see also glott– || From L glossa From Gr glōssa : tongue, language From IE *glōgh : thorn, point

glott– {tongue}: epiglottis, glottal, glottis, glottochronology polyglot see also gloss– || From ModL From Gr glōttis From glōtta : Attic variant of glōssa : tongue, language From IE *glōgh : thorn, point

gluc– {sweet, sugar}: glucagon, gluconate, gluconic, glucose, glucoside see also glyc– || From Gr glykys : sweet; akin to glykeros : sweet

glut– {to swallow}: deglutition, glut, glutton || From L glūtire, gluttire : to swallow, to gulp down To glūto, glutto : glutton

glutin– {glue}: agglutinate, glutinous glue, gluten || From L glūten (gen. glūtinis) : glue

glyc– {sugar, sweet}: glycerin, glycerol, glycol, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, nitroglycerin see also gluc– || From Gr glykeros : sweet; akin to glykys : sweet

glyph– {carving}: anaglyph, glyph, glyphography, hieroglyphic, petroglyph, solenoglyph same as glypt– || From Gr glyphē : a carving From glyphein : to carve, to cut

glypt– {carving}: glyptic, glyptograph, glyptodont same as glyph– || From Gr glyptos : carved From glyphein : to carve, to cut

gn– {to give birth, to be born}: benign, benignant, Cognātarium, cognate, impregnate, malign, malignant, pregnant unrelated: impregnable same as nas–1, nat–1 see also gen–1, gen–2 || From L gnatus, pp. of gnasci, older form of nasci (pp nātus) : to be born

gnath– {jaw}: gnathic, gnathite, opisthognathous, orthognathous, prognathous || From Gr gnathos : jaw

gn(o)– {to know}: agnosia, agnostic, diagnosis, gnome, gnomon, –gnomy, gnostic, ignoramus, ignorant, ignore, prognosis, prognosticate, prosopagnosia, physiognomy see also not–1 || From Gr gignōskein : to know To gnōsis : knowledge; gnōmōn : one who knows From IE *gno– : to know, knowledge

god– {god}: god, goddess, godfather, Godfrey, godhead, godly, godsend, godspeed, Godwin || From OE god; akin to Ger gott & Goth guth

gon–1 {angle, corner}: agonic, amblygonite, diagonal, goniometer, hexagon, orthogonal, pentagon, polygon, trigonometry || From Gr –gōnon From gōnia : angle

gon–2 {reproductive system}: gonad, gonidium, gonococcus, gonophore, gonorrhea, oogonium, schizogony, sporogony || From Gr gonos, gonē : procreation, offspring, semen, seed

gor– see agor–

gorg– {whirlpool, eddy, abyss, narrow pass, windpipe, throat, neck, decoration for the neck, beautiful}: disgorge, engorge, gorge (all senses), gorgeous, gorgerin, gorget see also gurg– || From ME From OFr gorge From LL gurga : throat, narrow pass, for L gurges : whirlpool, eddy, abyss

gos– {goose}: goshawk, gosling, gossamer || From ME gose From OE gos; akin to Du & Ger gans : goose, ON gas

govern– {to govern, to guide}: govern, governess, governance, government, governor see also cyber– || From OFr gouverner From L gubernare : to steer a ship, to be at the helm, to guide From Gr kybernan : to steer, to govern

grad– {step}: aggrade, centigrade, degrade, digitigrade, gradation, grade, gradient, gradual, graduate, plantigrade, retrograde, saltigrade same as gress– || From L gradūs : step, degree, stage, rank From gradi (pp. gressus) : to step, to walk From IE *ghredh– : to walk, to go

gram– {writing}: anagram, cardiogram, cryptogram, diagram, electroencephalogram, epigram, grammar, grammatical, gramophone, monogram, program, telegram, Tetragrammaton same as graph– || From LL gramma : small weight From Gr gramma : what is written, small weight From graphein : to write

gramin– {grass}: gramineous, graminivorous || From L gramen : grass

gran– {seed, grain}: granary, grange, graniferous, granite, granivorous, granola, granular, granulate, granuloma, pomegranate filigree, garner see also grenad– || From L grānum : seed, grain

grand– {great, large, larger, older}: aggrandize, grand, grandchild, grand duke, grandee, grandeur, grandiflora, grandiloquent, grandiose, grand jury, grand mal, grandparent, grandstand, Rio Grande compare petit– || From ME graunt : OFr grand, grant From L grandis : full-grown, great, large

grap– {hook, to harvest with a hook}: grape, grapnel, grapple || From OFr grape : bunch of grapes From graper : to gather with a hook From Frank krappo : a hook

graph– {to write}: agrapha, autograph, biography, cacography, calligraphy, cryptography, epigraph, geography, graph, graphic, graphite, graphology, lithography, paragraph, phonograph, photograph, telegraph, topography, typographical graffiti same as gram– || From Gr –graphos (comb. form) From graphein : to write To graphē : writing, drawing To graphikos : that can write or draw To L graphicus : concerned with drawing

grat– {pleasing, thankful, welcome}: congratulate, grateful, gratify, gratis, gratitude, gratuitous, gratuity, ingrate, ingratiate, persona non grata agree, grace Span. gracias || From L gratus : pleasing, welcome, agreeable To grātia : that which is pleasing, favor, thankfulness; grātiōsus : favored, beloved

grav–1 {to dig}: engrave, grave (tomb), graven, gravure, rotogravure Ger. graben || From ME graven From OE grafan : to dig, to bury; akin to Ger graben : to dig

grav–2 {heavy}: aggravate, grave (accent mark), grave (serious), grave (slow, as in music), gravid, gravitas, gravitate, gravitation, gravity (force), gravity (seriousness), myasthenia gravis aggrieve, grief, grieve compare lev–2 || From L gravis : heavy, weighty, burdened From IE *gwer– : heavy

grav–3 {gravel, sand}: grave (to clean the hull of a ship), gravel || From OFr grave (Fr grève) : beach, coarse sand (ships were originally cleaned by dragging them up on the beach)

greg– {to gather, a flock}: aggregate, congregate, congregation, egregious, gregarious, segregate || From L gregis (gen. of grex) : herd, flock, drove To gregārius : belonging to a herd or flock

grenad– {pomegranate}: Grenada, grenade, grenadier, grenadine, Grenadines garnet see also gran– || From OFr pome grenate : apple with seeds From pome : apple + grenate : having many seeds From L mālum granatum : apple with seeds : pomegranate From granatus : seedy From granum : seed

gress– {to step}: aggression, congress, degression, digress, egress, gressorial, ingress, introgress, progress, regress, retrogress, transgress degree same as grad– || From L gressus, pp. of gradi : to step, to walk From IE *ghredh– : to walk, to go

griff– {a fabulous monster}: griffin, hippogriff || From ME griffon From OFr grifoun From OHG or It grifo From L gryphus, earlier gryps From Gr gryps : griffin From grypos : hooked, curved

gris–, griz– {gray}: ambergris, éminence grise, grisaille, griseous, grisette, grizzled, grizzly unrelated: grisly, grist, gristle, verdigris || From Fr gris : gray From ML griseus From Gmc

griz– see gris–

gros(s)– {thick, large}: engross, grosbeak, grosgrain, gross grocer || From LL grossus : thick

grot– {grotto}: grotesque, grotto see also crypt– || From It grotta From ML grupta From VL crupta for L crypta : crypt From Gr kryptos : hidden From kryptein : to hide

gru– see congru–

guard– {to watch over, to protect}: guard, guardant, guardhouse, guardian, vanguard avant-garde see also ward–2 || From ME garde From OFr garder : to protect From Gmc wardon

guerr– {war}: guerrilla, nom de guerre || From Sp guerra, Fr guerre, or It guerra : war From Frank

guid–, guy– {guide, to lead}: guide, guidance, guidon, guy (stay), guy (fellow), Guy Ital. Guido || From OFr guider From It guida : leader, guide From Goth

guin– {white}: Guinevere (Jennifer), penguin Gwendolyn || From Welsh gwen, gwyn : white From Celt

guise– {appearance, manner}: disguise, guise || From OFr guise : manner, appearance, way From OHG wisa

gurg– {throat, gorge}: gurgitation, ingurgitate, regurgitate see also gorg– || From LL gurgitare : to flood From L gurges (gen. gurgitus) : whirlpool, eddy, abyss

gust– {taste}: de gustibus non est disputandum, disgust, gustatory, gusto || From L gustus : taste From gustare (1st pers. sing gusto) : to taste, to take a little of From IE *gus-tu– From *geus– : to choose, to taste

gutt– {drop}: gutta, guttate, gutter, guttersnipe || From L gutta : a drop

guy– see guid–

gymn– {naked, a place to exercise naked}: gymnasium, gymnast, gymnastics, gymnosophist, gymnosperm compare angio– || From Gr gymnos : naked

gyn– {woman}: androgynous, epigynous, gynarchy, gynecology, hypogynous, misogynist, perigynous, polygyny compare andr– || From Gr gynē (stem gynaiko–) : woman

gyps– {gypsum, chalk}: gypseous, gypsiferous, gypsophila, gypsum unrelated: Gypsy || From L gypsum : gypsum From Gr gypsos : chalk, gypsum

gyr– {to spin}: gyral, gyrate, gyre, gyro, gyrocompass, gyroscope, spirogyra same as gir– || From Gr gyros : circle To L gyrus : circle

Unattested, hypothesized
† Unknown origin

94 entries found.

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