The Cognātarium

la– {the people}: lay (not clerical), laic, laity, layman, Nicholas liturgy || From LL(Ec) : laicus : not priestly From Gr laikos From laos : the people

lab–1 {to take, to hold}: astrolabe, syllabic, syllabism, syllable same as leps–, lept–1 || From Gr labon From lambanein : to take, to hold

lab–2 {to totter, to slip, to fall}: labefaction, labile see also laps– || From L lăbare : to totter, to waver, to be about to fall From IE *lab– From *leb– : to hang, a hanging part

lab–3 {lip}: labellum, labia, labial, labialize, labiate, labiodental, labionasal, labiovelar, labret, labrum || From L labia : lip

labor– {work, toil}: collaborate, elaborate, labor, laboratory, laborious || From L labor : work, labor, toil, effort To labōriōsus : laborious

lac– {lac, resin}: lac, lacquer, shellac || From Hindi lākh From Sans lāksā : lac

lacert– {lizard}: Lacerta, lacertilian lizard Sp. lagartoel lagarto → Eng. alligator || From L lacerta : lizard

lachrym–, lacrim– {weeping, tears}: lachrymose, lacrimal, lacrimation || From L lacrima : a tear To lacrimare : to weep

lacrim– see lachrym–

lact– {milk}: ablactation, lactase, lactate, lacteal, lactic, lactiferous, lactobacillus, lactoprotein, lactose Similac™ Sp. leche Port. leite It. latte Fr. lait see also galact– || From L lac (gen. lactis) : milk From IE glak– : milk

lacu– {lake, pool, hole}: lacuna, lacunose, lacustrine lagoon Sp. lago || From L lacūna : cavity, hollow, dip; pool, pond

lad– {to load}: lade, laden, ladle || From ME laden From OE hladan : to lade, to load

lag– {to lay, to lie}: anlage, lager, vorlage Ger. Stalag Afrik. laager || From Gmc root leg– : to lie To lying place, lair, camp

lain– {attendant, steward, keeper}: chamberlain, chaplain, chatelaine || From Gmc suffix –ling : one who is connected with; e.g. earthling, underling To It –lingo as in camerlingo

lalia– {speech}: echolalia, Eulalia, glossolalia || From Gr lalia : speech From lalein : to talk, to prattle

lambd– {the Greek letter lambda: Λ}: lambda, lambdacism, lambdoid || From Gr lambda : 11th letter of the alphabet From Sem as in Heb lāmedh: ל

lamell– {plate, scale, layer}: lamella, lamellibranch, lamellicorn, lamelliform diminutive of lamin– || From L lāmella, dim. of lāmina : a plate or thin piece of metal or marble

lamin– {plate, sheet, layer}: lamina, laminar, laminate, laminitis diminutive form: lamell– || From L lāmina : a plate or thin piece of metal or marble

lamp– {to shine}: eclampsia, lamp, lampion lantern || From L lampas : torch From Gr lampein : to shine

lan– {wool}: Lana, lanate, laniferous, lanolin, lanose, lanugo || From L lāna : wool

langu–1 {weak, weary, faint}: languid, languish, languor || From L languēre : to be faint, weak, languid To languor : faintness, weariness

langu–2 see lingu–

lap–1 {a fold, flap, or hanging part of a garment}: dewlap, lap (all senses except to lap up a liquid, as a dog, or to make this sound), lapel, lappet, overlap, lapstrake || From ME lappe From OE læppa : fold or hanging part of a garment, skin

lap–2 {stone}: dilapidate, lapidary, lapillus, lapis lazuli || From L lapis (gen. lapidis) : stone To lapidārius : of or relating to stones

lapar– {abdomen, abdominal wall}: laparoscope, laparotomy || From Gr lapara : flank From laparos : weak, thin

laps– {to slip, to fall}: collapse, elapse, infralapsarian, lapse, lapsus, prolapse, relapse see also lab–2 || From L lapsus : downwards movement, a fall, pp. of lăbare : to totter, to waver, to be about to fall From IE *lab– From *leb– : to hang, a hanging part

lard– {bacon, lard}: interlard, lard, larder, lardon || From L lardum : bacon fat, lard

larg– {large}: enlarge, large, largesse, larghetto, largo || From L largus : abundant, plentiful, numerous

lat–1 {to bear, to carry}: ablate, ablative, collate, collation, correlate, dilatory, elate, legislate, oblate, oblation, prelate, prolate, relate, relation, relative, superlative, translate see also fer–1 || From L –lātus (comb. form), pp. of ferre : to bear, to bring, to carry

lat–2 {wide}: dilatation, dilate, latifundium, latitude, vasodilator || From L lātus : broad, wide

lat–3 {lath}: lath, lattice || From OHG latta : narrow strip, lath

lateral– {side}: bilateral, collateral, equilateral, ipsilateral, lateral, trilateral, unilateral || From L laterālis, gen. of latus : side, flank

latr– {worship}: demonolatry, ecclesiolatry, hagiolatry, heliolatry, iconolatry, idolater, idolatry, latria, Mariolatry, ophiolatry, zoolatry || From Gr(Ec) latreia From Gr latreia : hired service From latreuein to serve, to worship From latris : hired servant

laud– {to praise}: laud, laudable, laudatory, magna cum laude, summa cum laude || From L laudis, gen. of laus : praise, fame, glory, commendation To laudare : to praise, extol, commend

laur– {laurel}: baccalaureate, Laura, laureate, laurel, Laurence (Lawrence), lauric || From L laurus : the laurel or bay-tree, sacred to Apollo. Important persons such as poets, triumphant generals, sometimes priests, and ancestral busts were crowned with a wreath of laurel. Metonymous usage of laurel is triumph, victory.

laut– {sound}: ablaut, umlaut || From Ger laut : sound

lav– {to wash}: lava, lavabo, lavage, lavatory, lave, lavender, lavish latrine, launder Sp. lavandería same as lot–1, lut–1, luv– || From L lavare or lavere (pp. lautum or lotum or lavātum) : to wash, to bathe

lax– {loose, to loosen}: lax, laxative, relax same as lay–1, leas–, lys– || From L laxus : wide, loose, spacious To laxare : to widen, to loosen, to extend, to enlarge, to relieve, to release

lay–1 {to leave behind}: delay, relay unrelated: lay (of laity), allay same as lax–, leas–, lys– || From ME From MFr –lais From laier to leave, to let From L laxus : wide, loose, spacious To laxare : to widen, to loosen, to extend, to enlarge, to relieve, to release

lay–2 {to lay}: belay, inlay, lay, layabout, layaway, layer, layoff, layout, layover, overlay unrelated: lay (of laity), layette || From ME leyen From leggen From OE lecgan : to make to lie down

leas–, less– {to let go, to loosen}: lease, leash, –less, lessee, lessor, release laissez-faire, relish unrelated: less same as lax–, lay–1, lys– || From OFr laissier : to let, to permit From L laxare : to widen, to loosen, to extend, to enlarge, to relieve, to release From L laxus : wide, loose, spacious

lect–1 {to choose, to collect, to gather}: analects, collect, dialectic, eclectic, elect, intellect, intellectual, neglect, predilection, prelect, recollect, select elite same as leg–1, lig–1 see also lect–2 || From L –lectum (comb. form), pp. of legēre : to collect, to pick, to pick out, to choose, to select To lectio (gen. lectiōnis) : a selecting, a choosing From IE *leĝ– : to gather, to collect. Note: legere : to read & legere : to select are the same word, which has two different meanings in Latin.

lect–2 {speech, to read}: dialect, idiolect, lectern, lection, lector, lecture same as leg–2 see also lect–1, lex–, log–2 || From L lectus, pp. of legere : to read, to read aloud From IE *leĝ– : to gather, to collect. Note: legere : to read & legere : to select are the same word, which has two different meanings in Latin.

leg–1 {to choose, to collect, to gather}: elegant, elegit, legion, sacrilege same as lig–1 see also leg–2 || From L legēre : to collect, to pick, to pick out, to choose, to select From IE *leĝ– : to gather, to collect. Note: legere : to read & legere : to select are the same word, which has two different meanings in Latin.

leg–2 {word, to read}: illegible, legend, legible, prolegomenon see also lect–2, leg–1, lex–, log–2 || From L legere : to read From IE *leĝ– : to gather, to collect. Note: legere : to read & legere : to select are the same word, which has two different meanings in Latin.

leg–3 {law}: legal, legislate, legislature, legitimate, privilege loyal see also leg–4 || From L lēgis, gen. of lex : law To lēgitimus : legitimate, legal

leg–4 {to commission, to charge}: allegation, allege, college, collegial, collegium, delegate, legacy, legate, legation, relegate colleague see also leg–3 || From L lēgare : to ordain, to appoint, to make a deputy, to delegate authority, to commission From lēgis, gen of lex : law

lemma–1 {proof, support}: analemma, dilemma, lemma || From Gr lēmma : something taken or received, something taken for granted From lambanein : to seize, to assume

lemma–2 {husk}: lemma (grass bract), neurilemma, oolemma, plasmalemma, sarcolemma || From Gr lemma : husk From lepein : to peel

leni– {soft, mild, gentle}: lenient, lenis (compare fortis), lenitive, lenity || From L lēnis : smooth, soft, mild, gentle To lēnire : to make mild, soothe, relieve, mitigate

lent–1 {tough, resistant, slow}: lentic, lentivirus, lentissimo, lento, relent || From L lentus : tough, resistant, slow, lingering, lasting

lent–2 {lentil, lentil-shaped, hence: lens}: lenticel, lenticular, lenticulate, lenticule, lentigo, lentil lens || From L lentis, gen. of lens : lentil

leo– see leon–

leo(n)– {lion}: chameleon, Leo, Leon, Leona, Leonard, Leonids, leonine, leopard unrelated: Leopold same as lion– || From L leo (gen. leonis) From Gr leōn (gen. leontos) : lion

lep– {scales}: leper, lepidolite, Lepidoptera, lepidote, leprosy || From Gr lepis (gen. lepidos) : a scale From lepein : to peel To lepros : rough, scaly

lepor– {hare}: leporid, leporine leveret || From L leporis, gen of lepus : hare

leps– {to take, to seize, seizure}: catalepsy, epilepsy, narcolepsy, nympholepsy, prolepsis, syllepsis same as lab–1, lept–1 || From Gr –lēpsia : seizure From lēpsis : an attack; akin to lambanein : to seize

lept–1 {to take, to seize}: analeptic, cataleptic, epileptic, organoleptic same as lab–1, leps– || From Gr –leptikos : relating to a seizure From lēpsis : an attack To –lēpsia : seizure; akin to lambanein : to seize

lept–2 {thin, fine, slender}: leptocephalus, leptodactylous, lepton, leptospirosis || From Gr leptos : thin, fine, small From lepein : to peel

les– {to injure}: lese majesty (Fr lèse majesté), lesion see also lid– || From L laesio (gen. laesionis) : an attack, an injury, damage From laesum, pp. of laedere : to injure, to damage

less– see leas–

leth– {drowsiness, forgetfulness}: lethargy, Lethe unrelated: lethal || From Gr lēthe : forgetfulness, oblivion To lēthargos : forgetful

leuc– see leuk–

leuk–, leuc– {white}: leukemia, leukocyte, leukopoiesis see also lu– compare melan– || From Gr leukos : white

lev–1 {left [side]}: levorotation, levulose || From L laevus : left (side)

lev–2 {light weight, to lift, to raise}: alleviate, elevate, Levant (from the sun “rising” in the east), levee, lever, leverage, levator, levitation, levity, levy, relevant allay, leaven, relevé, relieve compare grav–2 || From L levis : light (weight) From levare : to raise, to lift up; to relieve a person from trouble, to diminish, to lighten (as a load)

levi– {Levi, third son of Jacob and Leah, and the Levite tribe descended from Levi}: Levi, Levite, Levitical, Leviticus || From Heb Levi From lēwī : joining

lex– {speech, word}: alexia, dyslexia, lexeme, lexicography, lexicology, lexicon, lexis see also lect–2, leg–2, log–2 || From Gr lexis : word, saying, phrase From legein : to speak To lexikos : of words From IE *leĝ– : to gather, to collect

lia– {to bind}: alliance, liability, liable, liaison, liana, reliable, reliance same as lig–2, ly– || From ME From OFr –lier (comb. form) From lier : to bind From L ligare : to bind, to tie

lib– {to please, pleasure, desire, lust}: ad libitum (ad-lib), libidinous, libido, quodlibet || From L libet, lubet : it pleases To libīdo, lubīdo : violent desire, appetite, longing

liber– {free}: liberal, liberate, Liberia, libertarian, libertine, liberty, mare liberum same as liver– || From L līber : free To līberālis : of freedom From IE *leudh-ero– : of or belonging to the people, hence: free From IE *leudh– : to grow up, to rise

libr–1 {book}: ex libris, librarian, library, libretto libel || From L liber : book To librārium : bookcase

libr–2 {balance}: deliberate, equilibrium, Libra, libration, Librium™ level || From L lībra : a balance, pair of scales To lībrare : to balance, to keep in equilibrium; dēlīberare : to weigh carefully, to consider, to deliberate

lic–1 {to be allowed}: illicit, license, licentious, licit, videlicet (abbr. viz.) || From L licēre (pp. licitum) : it is allowed To licens (gen. licentis) : that is allowed; licentia : freedom, license

lic–2 {to let go, to leave behind}: corpus delicti, derelict, in flagrante delicto, relic, relict reliquary same as linqu– || From L linquere : to leave, abandon, forsake, depart from To dēlinquo (pp. dēlictum) : to fail, esp., to fail in duty, to commit a crime; dērelinquo (pp. dērelictum) : to forsake, desert, abandon; relinquere (pp. relictum) : to leave behind

lic–3 {to allure}: delicacy, delicate, delicatessen, delicious, elicit delectable, delectation, delight, dilettante || From L –licere (comb. form) From lacere : to entice, to allure From IE *lek– : to snare, twig

lid–, lis– {to strike}: collide, collision, elide, elision see also les– || From L –līdere (comb. form) (pp. –līsum) From laedere : to injure, to damage

lieu– {place, stead}: lieu, lieutenant, milieu see also loc– || From OFr lieu From L locus : a place

lig–1 {to choose, to collect, to gather}: diligent, eligible, intelligent, negligee, negligent, negligible same as lect–1, leg–1 || From L –ligere (comb. form) (pp. –lectum) From legēre : to collect, to pick, to pick out, to choose, to select

lig–2 {to bind}: colligate, ligament, ligate, ligature, obligate, oblige, religion allegiance, league (alliance), liege, legato same as lia–, ly– || From L ligare : to bind, to tie To ligāmentum : bandage

lign– {wood}: gelignite, ligneous, lignify, lignite, pyroligneous || From L lignum : wood

lim–1 {boundary}: delimit, limit, limitation, unlimited || From L līmes (gen līmitus) : boundary, border, frontier

lim–2 {threshold}: eliminate, limen, liminal, preliminary, sublimate, sublime, subliminal || From L līmen (gen. līminus) : threshold, doorway, entrance

lim–3 {mud, slime}: limacine, limicoline, limicolous, limivorous || From L līmus : slime, mud To līmax (gen. līmacis) : a slug, a snail

limb– {border, edge}: limb (border, edge), limbate, limbic, limbo (indeterminate place), limbus || From L limbus (abl. limbo) : edge, border

limn– {lake, pond}: hypolimnion, limnetic, Limnobium, limnology || From Gr limnē : marsh, lake

lin– {flax, linen}: crinoline, line (to sew in), linen, liner (sewn-in fabric), lingerie, lining, linnet, linoleum, linseed, linsey-woolsey, lint see also line– || From L līnum : flax, linen

line– {line}: airline, byline, colinear, delineate, line, lineage, lineal, lineament, linear, linebacker, lineman, liner, lineup, matrilineal, outline, patrilineal, rectilinear, streamline, underline align, collimate see also lin– || From merging of OE line : cord & OFr ligne, both From L līnea : linen thread, string, hence: a line drawn From līnum : flax, linen, thread

lingu–, langu–2 {tongue, hence: language}: bilingual, language, languet, lingua franca, lingual, linguini, linguistic, metalinguistics, multilingual, sociolinguistics, sublingual, Vermilinguia lingo || From L lingua : tongue, speech, language • langu– words From OFr langue From L lingua

linqu– {to let go, to leave behind}: delinquent, relinquish same as lic–2 || From L linquere : to leave, abandon, forsake, depart from To dēlinquo : to fail, esp., to fail in duty, to commit a crime; relinquere : to leave behind

lion– {lion}: dandelion, lion, Lionel, lionize same as leon– || From OFr lion From L leo (gen. leonis) From Gr leōn (gen. leontos) : lion

lip– {fat}: glycolipid, lipase, lipid, lipoid, lipolysis, lipoma, lipophilic, lipoprotein, liposuction || From Gr lipos : fat

lips–, lipt– {to leave behind, to abandon}: eclipse, ecliptic, ellipse, ellipsis, elliptical || From Gr –leipsis : defect, failing From leipein : to fall short, to fail, to leave

lipt– see lips–

liqu– {liquid}: deliquesce, liquefaction, liquefy, liquescent, liqueur, liquid, liquidambar, liquidate, liquor || From L liquidus : fluid, flowing, liquid To liquēre : to be liquid To līquor : to be fluid, to flow; liquescere : to become fluid, to melt

lis– see lid–

lit– {lawsuit, legal proceeding}: ad litem, litigate || From L litis, gen. of lis : dispute, lawsuit

lite– {stone}: chrysolite, coprolite, cryolite, ichthyolite, saprolite same as lith– || From OFr for –lithe From Gr lithos : stone

liter– {letter}: alliteration, illiterate, literacy, literal, literary, literate, literature, obliterate, transliterate letter unrelated: liter (unit of measure) || From L littera : letter of the alphabet To litterātūra : a writing composed of letters, literature

lith– {stone}: antilithic, eolith, fecalith, gastrolith, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Paleolithic, lithium, lithography, lithology, lithopone, lithotomy, megalith, monolith, phytolith same as lite– || From Gr lithos : stone

liver– {free}: deliver, deliverance, livery same as liber– || From OFr livrer : to deliver From VL From L līberare : to free, to liberate From L līber : free

loc– {place}: allocate, collocate, dislocate, in loco parentis, local, locale, locality, localize, locate, locomotion, locomotive, locus, relocate see also lieu– || From L locus : a place To locare : to place, to set To locātio (gen. locātionis) : a placing, a setting

locu– {to speak}: allocution, circumlocution, elocution, interlocutor, locution, prolocutor same as loqu– || From L locūtus, pp of loqui : to speak To locūtio (gen. locūtiōnis) : speaking, speech

log–1 {small house, sheltered place}: loge, loggia lodge || From OFr loge : summer house, arbor

log–2 {speech, word, reason}: analog, analogy, anthology, apologue, apology, bradylogia, catalog, dialogue, epilogue, etymology, eulogy, homologous, ideologue, ideology, logarithm, logic, logistic, logo, logography, logomachy, logorrhea, Logos, logotype, –logy, monologue, neologism, philologist, prologue, syllogism, tautology, travelogue, trilogy see also lect–2, leg–2, lex– || From Gr logos : word, reckoning, thought From legein : to speak, to choose, to read From IE *leĝ– : to gather, to collect

long– {long, along}: along, alongside, chaise longue, elongate, furlong, headlong, long, longanimity, longeron, longevity, longitude, longshoreman, oblong, prolong, sidelong purloin || From ME From OE long From Gmc root lango–; akin to Ger lang & L longus

lop– {to run, to jump}: elope, gallop, interloper, lope, wallop || From Gmc hlaupan, hleapan : to run, to jump

lopho– {crest, tuft}: lophobranch, lophophore || From Gr lophos : crest, tuft

loqu– {to speak, speech}: colloquial, colloquy, eloquent, grandiloquence, loquacious, magniloquent, obloquy, res ipsa loquitur, soliloquy, somniloquy, ventriloquist same as locu– || From L loqui (pp. locūtus) : to speak To loquax (gen. loquācis) : talkative, loquacious

lorn– {to lose, having lost}: forlorn, lorn, lovelorn || From OE loren, pp. of leosan : to lose

lot–1 {to wash}: lotic, lotion same as lav–, lut–1, luv– || From L lōtus : a washing ( From lautus, pp. of lavare or lavere to wash, to bathe) To lōtio (gen. lōtiōnis) : a washing

lot–2 {lot, to divide or distribute by lot}: allot, lot (all senses), lottery, lotto || From OE hlot : lot (as cast lots)

lox– {slanting, oblique}: Loxodonta, loxodrome, Loxosceles, Pyrrhuloxia || From Gr loxos : slanting

lu– see leuk–, luc–, lumin–, lun–, lustr–

luc– {bright, light}: elucidate, lucent, lucerne, lucid, Lucifer, Lucille, Lucite™, Lucius, Lucy, lucubrate, luculent, noctilucent, pellucid, radiolucent, relucent, translucent lux (pl. luces) see also lu– || From L lux (gen. lūcis) : light & lūcēre : to shine

lucr– {gain, riches}: lucrative, lucre, Lucretia, Lucretius || From L lucrum : gain, profit, riches To lucrari : to gain, to profit To lucrātīvus : profitable, lucrative

luct– {to struggle}: ineluctable, reluctance, reluctivity || From L luctari : to wrestle, to struggle

lud– {to play, to jest}: allude, collude, delude, elude, interlude, ludic, ludicrous, postlude, prelude same as lus– || From L lūdēre (pp. lūsum) : to play, to amuse oneself, to delude

lumb– {loins}: lumbago, lumbar, sacrolumbar, thoracolumbar || From L lumbus : loin

lumin– {light}: bioluminescence, electroluminescent, illuminate, illuminati, luminance, luminary, luminescence, luminous, noctilucent, thermoluminescence lumen see also lu– || From L lūmen (gen. lūminis) : light To lūmināre : window; lūminōsus : full of light, luminous

lun– {the moon}: apolune, circumlunar, cislunar, luna, lunacy, lunar, lunate, lunatic, lunation, lune, lunette, lunular, translunar loony see also lu– || From L lūna : the moon To lūnare : to bend into a crescent

lup– {wolf}: lupine, lupulin, Lupus, lupus || From L lupus : wolf

lus– {to play, to jest}: allusion, collusion, elusive, illusion, prolusion same as lud– || From L lūsum, pp. of lūdēre : to play, to amuse oneself, to delude

lustr– {bright}: illustrate, illustrious, luster, lustrous, lustrum see also lu– || From L lustrare : to make bright, to illuminate

lut–1 {to wash}: ablution, dilute, elute, elutriate same as lav–, lot–1, luv– || From L –luere (comb. form) (pp. –lūtum) From lavare, lavere : to wash, to bathe

lut–2 {clay, mud, dirt, to befoul}: lute (clay), pollute || From L lutum : mud, mire, dirt

lute– {yellow}: corpus luteum, lutein, luteous unrelated: lute (instrument) || From L lūtum : a plant used to make yellow dye

luv– {to wash}: alluvial, alluvion, alluvium, antediluvian, colluvium, diluvial, eluvium, illuvium deluge same as lav–, lot–1, lut–1 || From L –luvium (comb. form) From –luere (comb. form) From lavare : to wash

lux– {luxury, extravagance, excess}: deluxe, luxe, luxuriant, luxuriate, luxury unrelated: lux, luxate || From L luxus : luxury, excess, extravagance To luxuriare : to be luxuriant, abundant in growth; luxuria : rankness, exuberant growth, excess, prodigality

ly– {to bind}: ally, rally, rely alloy same as lia–, lig–2 || From ME From OFr –lier (comb. form) From lier : to bind From L ligare : to bind, to tie

lyc– {wolf}: lycantrope, lycopod, lycopodium, Lycos™, Lycosidae || From Gr lykos : wolf

lyo– see lys–

lyr– {lyre, music}: Lyra, lyre, lyric, lyrical, lyricist, lyriform, lyrist || From L lyra From Gr lyra : lyre

lys–, lyo–, lyt–, lyz– {to undo, to loosen, to release, to dissolve}: analyze, catalytic, dialysis, electrolysis, electrolyte, hydrolyze, lyophilize, lyophobic, lysergic acid diethylamide, lysimeter, lysine, lysis, Lysol™, lysosome, lysozyme, paralysis, pyrolyze, urinalysis Apollyon same as lax–, lay–1, leas– || From Gr lysis : a loosening, a dissolving From lyein : to loosen, to dissolve, to release To lytos : that which releases or loosens

lyt– see lys–

lyz– see lys–

Unattested, hypothesized
† Unknown origin

136 entries found.

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