The Cognātarium

ob– {to, toward, before, opposite, inversely, upon, over, completely}: obdurate, obese, obey, obfuscate, obituary, object, oblate, obligate, oblique, obliterate, oblivion, oblong, obnoxious, obscene, obscure, obsequious, observe, obsess, obsolete, obstacle, obstetrics, obstinate, obstreperous, obstruct, obtain, obtrude, obtuse, obverse, obvious, occasion, occidental, occlude, occult, occupy, occur, offend, offer, omit, opponent, opportunity, oppose, oppress, opprobrium In words of Latin origin, ob– becomes oc– before c, of– before f, o– before m, op– before p. see also Appendix A || From L ob : toward, for, before, about

ob(e)– {life}: aerobe, aerobic, anaerobic, cenobite, microbe combining (suffixal) form of bio– || From back-formation from microbe, contr. of micro : small + bios : life

ocell– {eye, eye-like spot}: ocellate, ocellation, ocellus see also ocul– || From L ocellus, dim. of oculus : eye

ochlo– {crowd, mob}: ochlocracy, ochlophobia || From Gr ochlos : a mob, populace

ock– {diminutive suffix}: bullock, buttock, hassock, hillock, hummock, ruddock, tussock In some cases –ock has lost the diminutive sense. || From ME –ok From OE –oc, –uc : diminutive suffix

oct– {eight}: octad, octagon, octahedron, octal, octane, octant, octave, Octavius, octet, octillion, October, octogenarian, Octopoda, octopus, octoroon, octuple || From Gr okta– From oktō : eight To L octō : eight

ocul– {eye}: binocular, ocular, oculist, oculomotor, inoculate monocle see also ocell– || From L oculus : eye

od–1, hod– {going, journey, path, way}: anode, anodize, cathode, diode, electrode, episode, exodus, hodoscope, method, odometer, period, synod || From Gr hodos : way, path

od–2 {song}: epode, hymnody, melodeon, melody, monody, nickelodeon, ode, odeum, palinode, parody, prosody, psalmody, rhapsody, threnody comedy, tragedy || From Gr ōidē : song From contr. of aoidē From aeidein : to sing

od–3 see oid–

odi– {hatred}: odious, odium || From L odium : hatred To odiōsus : hateful, odious

odont– {tooth}: Creodonta, diphyodont, endodontics, odontology, oreodont, orthodontist, pedodontics, periodontal, pleurodont, prosthodontics, Tetraodontidae, thecodont mastodon see also dent– || From Gr odontos, gen. of odōn, odous : tooth

odor– {scent, to smell}: deodorant, deodorize, inodorous, malodorous, odor, odoriferous || From L odor : odor

odyn– {pain}: anodyne, odynophagia, pleurodynia || From Gr odynē : pain

oeil– {eye}: coup d’oeil, trompe l’oeil || From Fr oeil : eye

oen– {wine}: oenology, oenomel, oenophile || From Gr oinos : wine

oeuvr– see euvr–

offic– {performance of duty}: ex officio, office, officer, official, officialese, officianal, officiary, officiate, officious comb. of op–1 + fic– || From L officium : dutiful action From earlier opificium : doing work From opus : work, work done ( From IE *op– : work) + facere : to do, to make ( From IE *dhē– : to put, to set, to place)

oid–, od–3 {in the image or form of, hence: like}: alkaloid, anthropoid, arachnoid, asteroid, Caucasoid, deltoid, factoid, humanoid, Mongoloid, Negroid, nematode, ovoid, planetoid, plasmodium, tabloid, trapezoid same as eid–, id– || From Gr –o : word termination + –eidēs : –oid From eidos : what is seen, shape, form

oint– {to anoint, to salve}: anoint, ointment same as unct– || From ME From OFr From L unguere (pp. unctum) : to besmear, to anoint From unguentum : salve, ointment

oky– {dwelling, house}: euroky, stenoky see also eco– || From Gr oikia : a dwelling; akin to oikos : house From IE *weik– : house, settlement

ol–1 {oil}: acrolein, lanolin, linoleum, oleaginous, oleaster, olein, oleograph, oleomargarine, oleoresin, oleum, petrol, petrolatum, petroleum Ger. Öl || From L oleum : oil, olive oil From Gr elaion : oil, olive oil; akin to elaia : olive

ol–2 {to smell}: olfactory, redolent || From L olēre : to emit an odor, to have a smell (akin to odor : an odor) From IE *od– : to smell

old– {part of proper names}: see ald–

olf– {part of proper names}: see olph–

olig– {few}: oligarchy, Oligocene, Oligochaeta, oligoclase, oligophagous, oligopoly, oligopsony, oligosaccharide, oliguria || From Gr oligos : small, few

olph–, olf– {wolf}: Adolf, Adolph, Randolph, Rolf, Rudolph || From OHG wulf : wolf

oma– {swelling, tumor}: angioma, carcinoma, fibroma, hematoma, melanoma, myoma, sarcoma, scleroma, teratoma || From Gr –oma : tumor

omin– {omen, to regard as an ill omen}: abominable, abominate, ominous omen || From L ōminis, gen of ōmen : omen, sign, prognostication To abōminari : to deprecate an unfavorable omen, to detest, to abominate, to loathe

ommat– {eye}: ommatidium, ommatophore || From Gr ommatos, gen. of omma : eye

omni– {all, everything}: omnibus, omnidirectional, omnifarious, omnipotent, omnipresent, omniscient, omnivorous, omnium-gatherum compare nihil– || From L omnis : all, every

omo– {raw}: omophagia || From Gr ōmos : raw

omphal– {navel, umbilicus; hence: hub}: omphalos, omphaloskepsis || From Gr omphalos : navel To L umbilicus : navel

on–1 {one}: alone, anon, lone, lonely, nonce, none, once, one, only same as an–1 || From OE ān : one From IE *oino– or *oinos– : one To L unus, Gr oinē

on–2 {burden}: exonerate, onerous, onus || From L onus (gen. onerus) : burden, load

onc– {barbed hook}: onchocerciasis, oncidium || From Gr onkos : barbed hook

onco– {mass, tumor, cancer}: oncogene, oncology, oncovirus || From Gr onkos : mass

oneir– {dreams}: oneiric, oneiromancy || From Gr oneiros : dream

onic– {clipped form of electronic, used as a combining form}: avionics, bionic || From electr(onic), used as a combining form for things containing electronics

onom– {name}: antonomasia, onomastics, paronomasia, onomatopoeia same as onym– see also nom–2 || From Gr onoma, onuma : name From IE *nomen– (also *nomn–, *onomn–) : name

ont– {being, existence}: ontic, ontogeny, ontology, paleontology || From Gr ontos, gen. of ōn, prp. of einai : to be

onych– {claw, nail, fingernail}: onycholysis, Onychophora, paronychia, perionychium onyx, sardonyx || From Gr onychos, gen. of onyx : fingernail, claw

onym– {name}: acronym, allonym, anonymous, antonym, cryptonym, eponym, exonym, heteronym, Hieronymus, homonym, metonymy, paronymous, patronymic, pseudonym, retronym, synonym, tautonym, toponym same as onom– see also nom–2 || From Gr onuma : name From IE *nomen– (also *nomn–, *onomn–) : name

oo– {egg}: oocyte, oogamete, oogamous, oogenesis, oogonium, oology, oosphere, ootheca see also ov–1 || From Gr ōion : egg, prob. From IE *ōwyo : egg From *awi– or *awei– : bird To L avis : bird

op–1 {work}: co-op, coöperate, inoperable, magnum opus, modus operandi, opera, operate, operational, operative, opulent, opus, opuscule || From L opus (gen. operis) : work, work done, a finished work To opera : a work, trouble, pains, service, exertion, time for work, a workman From IE *op– : work, to produce

op–2 see alopia–, ophthalm–, opia–, ops–, opsin–, opsis–, opsy–, opt–2 see also prosop–

op–3 {wealth, abundance, resources, power, riches}: Ops (Roman goddess of abundance and the harvest), opulent see also optim– || From Ops, Opis : earth goddess of the harvest, abundance, and plenty

ophi– {snake}: Carphophis, ophicleide, ophidian, ophiolatry, ophiology, ophiomancy, ophiophagous, ophite, Ophiuchus, Rhabdophis || From Gr ophis : snake

ophthalm– {eye}: exophthalmos, ophthalmia, ophthalmology, ophthalmoscope, xerophthalmia see also op–2 || From Gr ophthalmos : eye

opi– {vegetable juice, juice of the poppy, opium}: opiate, opioid, opium, opiumism || From Gr opion From opos : vegetable juice

opia– {eye condition}: amblyopia, ametropia, anisometropia, deuteranopia, diplopia, isometropia, meropia, myopia, photopia, protanopia, presbyopia, protanopia, senopia see also alopia–, op–2 || From Gr –ōpia From ōps : eye

opistho– {rear, rearward, behind}: opisthodome, opisthoglyphous, opisthognathous, opisthography, opisthosoma || From Gr opisthen : behind From IE *opi–, *epi– : near, at, toward, near To epi–, ob–

opoly– see pol–3

ops– {eye, face}: ceratopsian, Cyclops, ichthyopsid, Pelops, sauropsid, triceratops see also op–2 || From Gr ōps : eye

opsin– {eye pigments}: iodopsin, opsin, porphyropsin, rhodopsin see also op–2 || From Gr opsis : sight From ōps : eye

opsis–, opsy– {view, appearance}: autopsy, biopsy, caryopsis, coreopsis, necropsy, synopsis, Thanatopsis see also op–2 || From Gr opsis : sight From ōps : eye

opson– {buyer}: monopsony, oligopsony, opsonify, opsonin, opsonize compare pol–3 || From Gr opsōnein : to buy food provisions, to buy From opson : food or meat eaten with bread

opsy– see opsis–

opt–1 {to choose}: adopt, co-opt, opt, optative, option, optional || From L optare : to choose, to select To optio (gen. optiōnis) : free choice, option

opt–2 {to see}: catoptrics, diopter, optical, optician, optics, optometry, panoptic, panopticon, stereopticon, Synoptic see also op–2 || From Gr optos : seen, visible From ōps : eye

optim– {best}: optimist, optimize, optimum superlative of ben–1, bon– compare pessim– see also op–3 See also Appendix C || From L optimus : best; superl. of bonus : good & bene : well

or–1 {to rise, to begin}: abort, abortion, disorient, orient, Orient (compare cid–1), Oriental, orientation, origin (→origin–) || From L orīri (pp. ortus) : to rise, to arise, to spring from To prp. oriens (gen. orientis) : rising; orīgo (gen. orīginis) : origin, source, beginning

or–2 {mountain}: oread, oreodont, orogeny, orography, orology || From Gr oros : mountain

or–3 {mouth, to speak}: adore, inexorable, oracle, orad, oral, orate, oratorio, oratory, orifice, orison, orotund, perorate same as os–2 || From L ōris, gen. of ōs : the mouth To ōrātio : speaking, speech; ōrātor : speaker; ōrāculum : solemn utterance, oracle

or–4 {gold}: or (heraldry term), oriflamme, oriole, ormolu, oroide, orphrey, orpiment, orpine, Orville same as aur–2 || From OFr or : gold From L aurum : gold

orama– {view}: cosmorama, cyclorama, diorama, panorama Cinerama™ || From panorama : coined c. 1789 by Robert Barker From Gr pan, neut. of pas : all, every, universal + horama : a view From horan : to see

orb– {circle, sphere}: deorbit, exorbitant, orb, orbicular, orbit, orbiter, suborbital || From L orbis : circle, ring, round thing, rotation To orbita : path, track

orchi(d)– {testis, testicle}: cryptorchid, orchid, orchidotomy, orchiectomy, orchitis || From Gr orchis : testicle, orchid. The flower orchid was so named from the shape of its tubers.

ord– {order, to put in order}: coordinate, disorder, extraordinary, foreordain, inordinate, insubordinate, ordain, order, orderly, ordinal, ordinance, ordinary, ordinate, ordnance, ordo, preordain, subordinate, superordinate see also ordi– || From L ordo (gen. ordinis) : series, line, row, order, rank, class From ordiri : to begin a weave, to lay the warp, to lay the threads in order

ordi– {to begin}: exordium, primordial see also ord– || From L ordiri : to begin a weave, to lay the warp, to begin To ordo (gen. ordinis) : series, line, row, order, rank, class

organ– {implement, engine}: organ, organelle, organic, organism, organization, organize, organoleptic, organon see also erg– || From L organum : implement, instrument From Gr organon : implement, engine From ergon : work

origin– {beginning, first}: aborigine, aboriginal, origin, original, originate part of or–1 || From L orīgo (gen. orīginis) : origin, source, beginning From orīri (pp. ortus) : to rise, to arise, to spring from

orn– {to adorn}: adorn, ornament, ornate, suborn || From L ornare : to equip, to furnish, to adorn, to decorate, to embellish To ornāmentum : equipment, accouterment, adornment

ornis–, ornith– {bird}: ichthyornis, notornis, Ornithischia, ornithology, ornithopod, ornithopter || From Gr ornis (gen. ornithos) : bird

ornith– see ornis–

orse– see rorse–

orth(o)– {straight, correct}: anorthite, orthochromatic, orthoclase, orthodontia, orthodox, orthognathic, orthogonal, orthographic, orthopedic, Orthoptera, orthotics, orthotropic || From Gr orthos : straight, correct

os–1 {god}: Osbert, Oscar, Osmond, Oswald || From OE os : a god From Gmc root

os–2 {mouth, opening}: os, oscitancy, oscular, osculate, osculum, ostiary, ostiole, ostium same as or–3 see also osti– || From L ōs (gen. ōris) : mouth To dim. osculum : little mouth, a kiss To osculari : to kiss

oscill– {swing, to-and-fro motion, oscillation}: oscillate, oscilloscope || From L oscillum : a swing To oscillāre : to swing back and forth

ose– {sugar}: dextrose, fructose, glucose, lactose, levulose, maltose, ribose, sucrose || From gluc·ose : applied to other types of sugars

osis– {condition [esp. diseased or abnormal], process}: cirrhosis, cyanosis, halitosis, metamorphosis, mitosis, narcosis, neurosis, psychosis, sclerosis || From Gr –osis : noun-forming suffix

osmi– {odor, smell}: anosmia, osmics, osmiridium, osmium, parosmia unrelated: osmosis || From Gr osmē : odor

oss– {bone}: ossein, osseous, ossicle, ossifrage, ossify, ossuary see also oste– || From L os (gen. ossis) : bone From IE *ost– : bone

oste– {bone}: exostosis, osteal, osteitis, osteoarthritis, osteoclasis, osteocyte, osteology, osteoma, osteomalacia, osteomyelitis, osteopathy, osteoplasty, osteoporosis, osteosarcoma, osteosis, osteotome, osteotomy oyster see also oss– || From Gr osteon : bone From IE *ost– : bone

osti– {door, opening}: ostiary, ostiole, ostium unrelated: ostomy– see also os–2 || From L ostium : door, opening, mouth From ōs : mouth

ostrac– {shell}: entomostracan, malacostracan, ostracism, ostracize, ostracod, periostracum || From Gr ostrakon : shell, potsherd

ot– {ear}: otalgia, otic, otitis, otolaryngology, otolith, otology, otosclerosis, otoscope || From Gr ōtos, gen of ous : ear

oti– {ease, leisure}: negotiate, otiose || From L ōtium : leisure, free time, ease To negōtium : absence of leisure, hence: business, work

otomy– see tomy–

ound– {waves, to rise in waves}: abound, redound, surround same as und– || From ME –ounden From OFr –onder From L undare : to rise in waves, to surge, to undulate From unda : water in motion, a wave

out– {out, outside}: about, out, outage, outer, outfit, outhouse, outing, outlaw, outlet, outside, outward same as ut–2 || From OE ut : out From Gmc root

outr– {beyond, far}: à outrance, outrage, outrageous, outré same as ultra– || From OFr outre : beyond From L ultrā : beyond, on the far side

ov–1 {egg, egg-shaped}: ab ovo, oval, ovarian, ovariectomy, ovary, ovate, oviparous, ovipositor, ovoid, ovoviviparous, ovulate, ovulum, ovum unrelated: ovation see also oo– || From L ovum : egg, prob. From IE *ōwyo : egg From *awi– or *awei– : bird To L avis : bird

ov–2 {sheep}: ovibos, ovine || From L ovis : sheep

overt– {an opening, to open}: overt, overture see also per–2 compare cover– || From ME overte From MFr overt, pp. of ovrir : to open From VL operire From L aperire : to uncover, to expose to view

ox(y)– {sharp, acid}: anoxemia, anoxia, antioxidant, deoxyribonucleic acid, epoxy, hypoxia, oxalic acid, oxalis, oxidate, oxide, oxidize, oxycephaly, oxygen, oxymoron, oxytocin, oxytone, paroxysm, peroxide see also ac– || From Gr oxus : sharp, acid From IE *ak– : sharp

oz– {to smell}: ozaena, ozocerite, ozone || From Gr ozein : to smell From IE *od– : to smell

Unattested, hypothesized
† Unknown origin

98 entries found.

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