The Cognātarium

pac– {peace}: pacific, pacifist, pacify, pact, requiescat in pace (abbr. R.I.P.) appease, peace same as pax– || From L pacis, gen. of pax : peace

pachy(s)– {thick}: pachycephalosaur, pachyderm, pachymeninx, pachysandra, pachytene || From Gr pakhus : thick

pack– {pack, package}: backpack, pack, package, packet, six-pack || From ME pakke From MDu pak To similar term arising from the wool trade of the Low Countries and carried throughout Europe during medieval times From

pact– {to strike, to press together}: compact, impact, impacted unrelated: pact || From L –pactus (comb. form), pp. of pangere : to fix, to fasten

paed– see ped–2, ped–3

pag–1 {page of a book, scene of a play}: page (leaf), pageant, pageantry, paginal, pagination || From L pagina : page From pangere : to fasten

pag–2 see propag–

pal–1 {pale}: appall, pale (white), pall (to become wearisome), pallid, pallor || From L pallidus : pale & pallere : to be pale

pal–2 {stake, area staked out}: impale, pale (stake), paling, palisade, Palo Alto, paloverde || From L palus : stake

palat– {palace}: palatinate, palatine, palatial paladin || From L palatium : palace From Palatium : Palatine Hill, one of the seven hills of Rome, where Augustus Cæsar lived

pale(o)– {ancient, prehistoric}: paleoanthropic, paleobiology, Paleocene, paleography, Paleolithic, paleontology, Paleozoic || From Gr palaios : ancient

palin– {again}: palindrome, palingenesis, palinode palimpsest || From Gr palin : again

pall– {covering, cloak}: pall (covering), pallbearer, palliate, palliative, pallium || From L pallium : a cover, akin to palla : cloak, mantle

palm– {palm of the hand; hence: palm tree (the palm leaf somewhat resembles the palm of the hand)}: palm (of the hand), palm (tree), palmar, palmate, palmatifid, palmer, palmetto, palmistry, palmitate, palmyra || From L palma : palm of the hand

palp– {to feel, to touch}: palp, palpable, palpate, palpitate, palpus, pedipalp || From L palpitare, freq. of palpare : to touch, to feel

palud– {swamp, marsh}: paludal, paludism || From L paludis, gen. of palus : marsh

palyn– {dust, spores, pollen}: melissopalynology, palynology, palynomorph || From Gr palynein : to strew, to sprinkle From palē : fine meal, dust From IE *pel– : dust, meal, flour

pan–1 {all}: pan (to move a camera), panacea, Pan-American, panchromatic, pancreas, pandect, pandemic, pandemonium, Pandora, panegyric, Pangaea, pangram, panoply, panoptic, panorama, Panthalassa, pantheism, pantheon, Pantone™ extended form: panto– || From Gr pan, neut. of pas : all, every, universal

pan–2 {bread}: accompany, appanage, companion, company, impanation, panada, panatela, pannier, pantry Span. pan || From L panis : bread

pan–3 {a flat piece of cloth}: pane, panel || From L pannus : piece of cloth & VL pannellus, dim. of pannus

pand–, pans– {to spread out}: expand, expanse, expansion, spandex, spandrel same as pass–1 || From L pandere (pp. pansum or passum) : to spread out, to extend

pans– see pand–

panto– {all}: pantograph, pantomime extension of pan–1 || From Gr pantos, gen. of pan : all, every, universal

papill–1 {nipple, pimple, swelling}: papilla, papilloma, papillomavirus || From L papilla : nipple, dim. of papula : swelling, pimple

papill–2 {butterfly}: papillon, papillote || From L papilio : butterfly

papyr– {papyrus, paper}: papyraceous, papyrology, papyrus || From L papyrus From Gr papyros From prob. Coptic From prob. Egyptian

par–1 {through, by}: paramount, paramour, par avion, parboil, pardon, par excellence, parfait, parget, parterre, parvenu same as per–1 || From Fr par– From L per, per– : through, by, for, etc.

par–2 {equal}: comparable, compare, disparage, disparate, disparity, nonpareil, par, pari-mutuel, parity, parlay, primus inter pares pair same as peer– || From L par : equal

par–3 {to give birth}: fissiparous, multiparous, nulliparous, oviparous, ovoviparous, parent, primipara, viviparous same as partu–, per–3 || From L parere (pp. partum) : to bring forth, to bear

par–4 {to prepare, to set, to provide, to furnish}: apparatus, apparel, inseparable, irreparable, parade, parament, pare, parrel, parry, parure, prepare, rampart, reparations, semper paratus, separate repair more at para–2 see also sever–2 || From L parare : to prepare, to set in order, to arrange

par–5 {to appear}: apparent, apparition, apparitor, transparent || From L –pārere (comb. form) & pārere : to appear, to come forth, to be visible

par(a)–1 {generally has the sense of ‘beside or alongside;’ by extension: by, beyond, aside from, past, wrong, amiss}: parable, parabola, Paraclete, paradigm, paradox, paragon, paragraph, paralegal, parallax, parallel, paralyze, paramecium, paramedic, parameter, paramilitary, paranoia, paranormal, paraphernalia, paraphrase, paraplegia, parapsychology, parasite, paravane, paregoric, parenthesis, paresthesia, parish, parley (→parl–), parochial, parody, parole, paronomasia, paroxysm, parsec || From Gr para– : at the side of, alongside

par(a)–2 {protection}: parachute, parados, parapet, parasol, paratrooper, parfleche, parry spar (to fight) specialized use of par–4 || From L parare : to prepare, to set in order, to arrange

parc– {partition}: coparcener, parcel, parcenary see also part– || From ME From Anglo-Fr parc– From OFr parç– From L partitio From ult. L pars (gen. partis) : part, portion

pard– {panther}: camelopard, leopard, pard || From L pardus From Gr pardos : panther From Persian?

parl– {discourse}: parlance, parlando, parley, parliament, parlor parole unrelated: parlous, parlay from parable, comb. of para–1 + bol–2 || From OFr parler : to speak From OFr From LL(Ec) parabolare : to speak From parabola : a speech, a parable From L parabola : comparison From Gr parabolē : analogy From para : beside, alongside + bolē : a stroke, a throwing From ballein : to throw; “to throw [two things] alongside”, hence: a comparison

part– {to divide into parts}: apart, apartment, compartment, counterpart, depart, department, departure, impart, impartial, part, partake, partial, participate, participle, particle, parti–colored, particular, particulate, partisan, partition, partitive, partner, party, repartee, tripartite parse Afrik. apartheid see also parc–, portion– || From L partis, gen. of pars : part, portion

parthen– {virgin}: parthenocarpy, parthenogenesis, Parthenon, Parthenope || From Gr parthenos : maiden, virgin

partu– {to give birth}: parturifacient, parturition, postpartum same as par–3 || From L partum, pp. of parere : to bring forth, to bear

parv– {small}: parvoline, parvovirus unrelated: parvenu, parvis comparative forms: minor–, minu– superlative form: minim– || From L parvus : small (compar. minor, superl. mimimus)

pass–1 {to spread, to step, to go, to pass}: bandpass, bypass, compass (all senses), encompass, en passant, impassable, impasse, overpass, pass, passable, passade, passage, passageway, passant, passbook, passé, passenger, passer-by, passim, passkey, Passover, passport, password, surpass, trespass, underpass pace, past, pastime Fr. pas same as pand– see also pat– || From L passus : step, stretch out the legs, pp. of pandere : to stretch out

pass–2 {to suffer}: compassion, dispassionate, impassioned, impassive, passion, passionate, passive same as pati– || From L passio : suffering From passus, pp. of pati : to endure, to suffer

past–1 {paste}: impasto, pasta, paste, pasteboard, pastel, pasticcio, pastiche, pasties, pastry Fr. pâté, patisserie || From LL pasta : paste

past–2 {to feed}: antipasto, pastern, pastille, pastor, pastoral, pastorale, pastorate, pasturage, pasture, repast || From L pastus, pp. of pascere : to feed

pat– {to spread out, to be open}: letters patent, patency, patent, patulous see also pass–1 || From L patens (gen. patentis), prp. of patēre : to be open, to lie or stand open

path– {feelings, bad feelings, suffering, disease}: antipathy, apathy, empathy, encephalopathy, homeopath, naturopath, osteopathy, pathetic, pathogen, pathology, pathos, –pathy, psychopath, sociopath, sympathy, telepathy || From Gr pathos : suffering, disease, feeling

pati– {to suffer}: compatible, impatient, patient (all senses) same as pass–2 || From L pati : to suffer To partic. patiens (gen. patientis) To patientia : endurance

patr– {father, the fatherland}: allopatric, compatriot, expatriate, paterfamilias, paternal, paternity, Pater Noster, patriarch, Patricia, patrician, patricide, Patrick, patrilineal, patrilocal, patrimony, patriot, patristic, patron, patronize, patronymic, repatriate, sympatric compadre, Jupiter Span. padre It. padrone Ger. Vater same as petr–2 compare matr– || From L pater : father To patrōnus : protector, defender

pause– {to stop, to end}: heliopause, menopause, pause, tropopause pose || From L pausa From Gr pausis : a standing, a stopping From pauein : to bring to an end, to stop

pax– {peace}: pax, Pax Americana, Pax Romana same as pac– || From L pax (gen. pacis) : peace From IE *pak– From *pag– : to fasten (“to bind together in a pact”)

pe– {foot soldier}: peon pawn (chess piece), pioneer see also ped–1, pied– || From Sp peón or Port peão or OFr peon From ML pedo (gen. pedonis) : foot solder From LL, one who has flat feet From L pedis (gen. of pes) : foot From IE *ped– : foot

peal– {to address, to entreat, to summon}: appeal, peal, repeal same as pell– || From L –pellare (with prefixes) : to address, to entreat, to accost

pecc– {to err, to sin}: impeccable, peccadillo, peccant, peccavi || From L peccare : to sin

pect–1 {to congeal}: pectase, pectate, pectin || From Gr pēktos : congealed

pect–2 {comb}: pecten, pectinate || From L pectere : to comb

pector– {breast}: angina pectoris, expectorant, expectorate, pectoral parapet || From L pectoris, gen. of pectus : breast

pecu– {money, possessions, private property}: impecunious, peculate, peculiar, peculium, pecuniary || From L peculium : private property & pecunia : money From pecus : cattle

ped–1 {foot}: biped, centipede, expedient, expedite, expedition, impede, impediment, maxilliped, millipede, moped, pedal, pedestal, pedestrian, pedicab, pedicel, pedicure, pedigree, pedipalp, pedometer, peduncle, pinniped, quadruped, sesquipedalian, velocipede see also pe–, pied–, pod–, pus– || From L pedis, gen. of pes : foot From IE *ped– : foot

ped–2, paed– {child}: pederasty, pediatrician, pedodontics, pedogenesis, pedology, pedomorphism, pedophile more at ped–3 || From Gr paid : child

ped–3, paed– {training, education, rearing of children}: encyclopedia, hypnopedia, orthopedic, pedagogue, pedant, pedantic, propaedutic ultimately same as ped–2 || From Gr paideia : training of children & paideuein : to instruct From paid : child

ped–4 {earth, ground, soil}: parallelepiped, pedocal, pedogenesis, pedology || From Gr pedon : the ground

peer– {equal}: peer (equal), peer (nobleman), peerage, peerless same as par–1 || From ME From OFr From L par : equal

pejor– {worse}: pejoration, pejorative impair comparative of mal– compare melior– See also Appendix C || From L pejor : worse

pel–1 {to push}: compel, dispel, expel, impel, propel, propellor, repel, repellant same as puls– || From L pellere (pp. pulsum) : to set in motion, to drive, to push

pel–2 {skin}: pelisse, pellagra, pellicle, pelt, peltry surplice || From L pellus : skin

pelag– {ocean}: archipelago, bathypelagic, epipelagic, mesopelagic, pelagic unrelated: pelage || From L pelagicus From Gr pelagos : sea From IE *plāk– : to be flat

pell– {to entreat, to address}: appellant, appellate, appellation, appellative, compellation, interpellate rappel same as peal– || From L –pellare (with prefixes) : to address, to entreat, to accost

pelt– {shield}: peltast, peltate unrelated: pelt || From L pelta From Gr peltē : light shield

pemph– {bubble, blister}: pemphigus || From ML From Gr pemphigos, gen. of pemphix : bubble

pen–1 {almost, scarcely}: antepenult, peneplain, peninsula, penult, penultimate, penumbra, penury || From L paene : almost, scarcely

pen–2 {pen [writing implement]; orginally, a quill}: pen, penknife, penlight, penman, penmanship unrelated: pencil same as penn– || From ME From OFr penne : pen, quill, feather From L pinna, var. of penna : feather

pen–3 {pain, punishment}: penal, penalize, penalty, penology subpoena same as pine–, pun– || From L poena : punishment From Gr poinē : penalty, fine

pen–4 {repentance}: penance, penitent, penitentiary, repent || From L paenitēre : to repent, to regret To paenitentia : repentance, regret

pen–5 {inward, internal, to go into or within}: impenetrable, penetralia, penetrance, penetrate || From L penetrare (pp. penetratus) : to put into, to pass into, to penetrate; & penitus : inward, internal

pen–6 {tail}: pencil, penicillin, penicillium, penile, penis || From L penis : tail, penis (dim. penicillus)

pend– {to hang, to weigh [out]}: append, appendage, appendectomy, appendix, compendium, depend, expend, expendable, expenditure, impend, independent, pend, pendant, pendent, pending, pendulous, pendulum, perpend, perpendicular, spend, stipend, suspend, vilipend penthouse same as pens– see also ponder– || From L pendere : to hang, to weigh out

penia– {lack, paucity}: leukopenia, neutropenia, panleukopenia || From Gr penia : poverty, lack

penn– {feather}: empennage, pennant, pennate, penne (pasta), pennon same as pinn– see also pen–2 || From OFr penne : feather From L pinna, var. of penna : feather From IE *petna– : feather From IE base *pet– : to fly

pens– {to hang, to weigh [out]}: compensate, dispensary, dispensation, dispense, expense, expensive, indispensable, pensile, pension, pensive, propensity, recompense, suspense, suspension penchant, Spencer same as pend– || From L pensum, pp. of pendere : to hang, to weigh out & pensare (freq. of pendere) : to weigh carefully, to ponder, to consider, to compensate

pent– {five}: pentacle, pentad, pentagon, pentagram, pentamerous, pentameter, pentastich, Pentateuch, pentathlon, Pentecost, pentode, Pentothal Sodium™ || From Gr pente : five

peps–, pept– {digestion}: dyspepsia, eupeptic, Pepsi Cola™, pepsin, pepsinogen, peptic, peptide, Pepto-Bismol™, peptone || From L pepticus From Gr pepsis : digestion From peptein : to digest

pept– see peps–

per–1 {through, in all the senses of through: through, throughout, completely, by means of, because of; also has the sense of ‘according to’ and ‘for each’}: ampersand, appertain, impervious, perambulator, per capita, perceive, percent, percolate, percussion, per diem, perdition, perennial, perfect, perfidy, perforate, perform, perfume, perish, perjure, permanent, permeate, permit, permutation, pernicious, perorate, peroxide, perpendicular, perpetrate, perpetual, perplex, per se, persecute, persevere, persiflage, persist, perspective, perspicacious, perspire, persuade, pertain, perturb, peruse, pervade, pervert, repercussion same as par–1 || From L per : through

per–2 {to cover, to uncover}: aperient, apéritif, aperture, operculate, operculum, pert see also cover–, overt– || From L aperire (pp. apertum) : to uncover, to expose, to open & opposite operire (pp. opertum) : to cover To operculum : a cover; both possibly From parere : to bring forth, to bear

per–3 {to give birth, to produce}: puerperal, puerperium, repertoire, repertory, viper same as par–3, partu– || From L –perire (with prefixes) (pp. –pertum) From parere : to produce, to bear, to bring forth

per–4 see exper–, imper–

peri– {about, around, encircling, enclosing}: pericardium, pericarp, perigee, perihelion, perimeter, perinephrium, perineum, period, periodic, periodontal, peripatetic, periphery, periphrasis, periscope, peristalsis, peristome, peristyle, peritoneum, peritonitis paradise || From Gr peri : around

perisso– {uneven (number), irregular}: perissodactyl compare artio– || From Gr perissos : uneven, irregular

person– {person, traits or attributes of a person}: impersonate, person, persona, personable, personage, personal, personality, personalize, personally, persona non grata, personify, personnel parson || From L persōna : a face mask worn by actors in Roman and Greek dramas; hence: a role, a person played by an actor, a character To persōnātus : person wearing a mask, persōnālis : of a person From (prob.) Etr. phersu : mask

pessim– {worst}: pessimism, pessimist Fr. tant pis superlative of mal– compare optim– See also Appendix C || From L pessimus : worst

pest–1 {plague}: pest, pesticide, pestiferous, pestilence, rinderpest pesky unrelated: pester || From L pestis : plague, pestilence To pestifer : pestiferous, pestilens : pestilential

pest–2 see pist–

pet– {to go toward, to seek}: acropetal, appetite, centripetal, compete, competent, competition, competitive, impetuous, impetus, incompetent, perpetual, perpetuate, perpetuity, petition, petulant, repetend, repetition, repetitive repeat same as pit–1 || From L petere : to rush at, to assail

petit–, petti–, petty– {small, smaller}: petite, petit jury, petit mal, petits fours, petticoat, pettifog, petty, petty officer compare grand– || From ME pety From OFr petit : small From

petr–1 {stone}: Peter, petrify, petrochemical, petroglyph, petrol, petrolatum, petroleum, petrology, saltpeter || From L petra : rock From Gr petra : rock & petros : stone

petr–2 {to father, hence: to accomplish, to achieve, to get}: impetrate, perpetrate same as patr– || From L –petrare (with prefixes) To patrare : to father To pater : father

petti– see petit–

petty– see petit–

pex– {to fix in place}: calcipexis, colopexy, colpopexy, hysteropexy, mastopexy, retinopexy, viropexis || From Gr pēxiā : fixing From pēgnunai : to fix in place

phag– {to eat}: aerophagia, anthropophagous, aphagia, autophagy, bacteriophage, coprophagous, dysphagia, esophagus, euryphagous, hyperphagia, ichthyophagous, macrophage, microphage, necrophagous, odynophagia, phagocyte, phyllophagous, rhizophagous, sarcophagus, scatophagous, xylophagous || From L –phagus (with prefixes) From Gr –phagos From phagein : to eat

phalang–, phalanx– {finger bone; also a line of battle used by the ancient Greeks: phalanx}: phalange, phalanger, phalangeal, phalanx phalanstery || From L From Gr phalanx (pl. phalanges) : line of battle, finger bone

phalanx– see phalang–

phall– {phallus}: aphallia, apophallation, ithyphallic, phallation, phallic, phallocentric, phalloplasty, phallus || From L phallus From Gr phallos : phallus From IE *bhel– : to blow, to swell; hence: swollen or round object

phan– {to show, to appear}: aphanite, cellophane, diaphanous, epiphany, lithophany, theophany more at phaner–, phant– same as phas–1, phen– see also fan–2 || From Gr phainein : to show, to appear

phaner– {visible}: phanerite, phanerogam, phanerophyte, Phanerozoic part of phan– || From Gr phaneros : visible From phainein : to show

phant– {to show, to appear, a person or thing that shows or appears}: hierophant, phantasm, phantasmagoria, phantom, sycophant part of phan– || From L phantasma From Gr –phantēs (comb. form) : one who shows To phainein : to show, to appear

pharm(ac)– {drug, medicine}: alexipharmic, pharmaceutical, pharmacist, pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenetics, pharmacognosy, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology, pharmacopoeia, pharmacotherapy, pharmacy || From Gr pharmakon : poison, drug

pharyng–, pharynx– {pharynx}: pharyngeal, pharyngitis, pharyngology, pharyngoscope, pharynx || From Gr pharynx, gen. pharyngos : throat

pharynx– see pharyng–

phas–1 {to show, to appear}: anaphase, emphasis, metaphase, phase, phasmid, prophase, telephase emphatic same as phan–, phen– || From L phasis From Gr phainein : to show, to appear

phas–2 {to speak, to say}: aphasia, apophasis, dysphasia see also fa–, phon– || From Gr phasiā : speech From phasis : utterance From phanai : to say

phell– {cork}: phellem, phelloderm, phellogen || From Gr phellos : cork

phem– {voice, to speak}: euphemism, Polyphemus see also phet–, phon– unrelated morpheme, grapheme || From Gr phēmē : saying, report To phanai : to speak

phen– {to appear}: phenetic, phenobarbital, phenocopy, phenol, phenology, phenomenon, phenomenal, phenotype, phenyl, phosphene same as phan–, phas–1 || From Gr phainein : to show

pheng– {light, luster}: phengite, Phengodidae || Gr phengos : light, luster

pher– {to bear, to carry}: Christopher, peripheral, periphery, pheromone, telpher same as phor– see also fer–1 || From Gr pherein : to carry, to bear From IE *bher– : to carry, to bring

phet– {to speak}: prophet prophecy, prophesy unrelated: aphetic see also phem–, phon– || From Gr phanai : to speak

phil– {love, fondness, attraction, affinity}: acidophilus, Anglophile, audiophile, bibliophile, halophile, hemophilia, homophile, necrophilia, oenophile, paraphilia, pedophile, Philadelphia, philander, philanthropist, philately, philharmonic, Philip, philodendron, philogyny, philology, philosophy, philter, photophilic, Russophile, Sinophile, spermophile, xerophilous, zoophilia || From Gr philos : loving

phleb– {vein}: phlebitis, phlebography, phlebology, phlebosclerosis, phlebotomy, thrombophlebitis || From Gr phlebos, gen of phleps : vein

phleg– see phlog–

phlog–, phleg– {to burn, flame, to be inflamed, hence: bodily humors resulting from inflammation}: antiphlogistic, Phlegethon, phlegm, phlegmatic, phlogistic, phlogiston, phlogopite phlox see also flagr– || From Gr phlogozein : to heat, to inflame, to set on fire From phlegethein : to blaze From phlegein : to burn

phob– {fear}: acrophobia, agoraphobia, ailurophobia, algophobia, arachnophobia, claustrophobia, homophobia, hydrophobia, lyophobic, necrophobia, nyctophobia, –phobe, phobia, –phobia, photophobia, scotophobia, technophobe, triskaidekaphobia, xenophobia || From L phobus From Gr phobos : fear

phoc– {seal [marine animal]}: phocine, phocomelia || From L phoca From Gr phōkē : a seal

phon– {sound, speech}: allophone, antiphon, aphonia, cacophony, Dictaphone™, dysphonia, euphonious, Francophone, homophone, hydrophone, megaphone, microphone, phon, phoneme, phonetic, phonics, phonogram, phonograph, phonolite, phonon, phonotype, polyphonic, quadraphonic, saxophone, sousaphone, stereophonic, symphony, telephone, vibraphone, xylophone unrelated: colophon see also phem–, phas–2 || From Gr phōnē : sound, voice

phor– {to bear, to carry}: adiaphorous, amphora, anaphora, chromatophore, diaphoresis, dysphoria, electrophoresis, euphoria, gametophore, gonophore, metaphor, oophorectomy, phoresis, phosphorescent, phosphorus, pneumatophore, pyrophoric, semaphore, siphonophore, spermatophore same as pher– see also fer–1 || From ModL –phorus, –phorum (comb. forms) From Gr –phoros, –phoron From pherein : to bear From IE *bher– : to carry, to bring

phos– {light}: phosgene, phosphate, phosphene, phosphorescent, phosphorous, phosphorus, phosphor same as phot– || From Gr phōs (gen. phōtos) : a light

phot– {light}: aphotic, euphotic, phot, photobiology, photocell, photochemical, photocopy, photoelectric, photoengraving, photogenic, photograph, photokinesis, photometer, photon, photophobia, photopia, pototsensitive, photosphere, photosynthesis, phototropism, telephoto same as phos– || From Gr phōtos, gen. of phōs : a light

phragm– {fence, enclosure}: diaphragm, epiphragm || From Gr phragma : fence From phrassein : to enclose

phras– {to speak}: antiphrasis, holophrastic, metaphrase, paraphrase, periphrasis, phrase, phraseology || From L phrasis : diction From Gr phrazein : to speak

phreat– {a well, groundwater, spring}: phreatic, phreatophyte || From Gr phreatos, gen. of phrear ) : a well, a spring

phren–, fren–2 {the mind}: frenetic, frenzy, hebephrenia, phrenic, phrenitis, phrenology, schizophrenia frantic || From Gr phrēn (gen. phrenos) : midriff, heart, mind, mental capacity

phthal– {clipped form of naphthalene}: phthalein, phthalic, phthalin, phthalocyanine see also naphth– || From naphthalene

phther– {leather}: diphtheria, diphtheritic || From Gr diphthera : leather From dephein : to tan hides

phthis– {to waste away}: phthisis || From L From Gr phthisis : a decay From phthiein : to waste away

phthong– {sound, voice}: diphthong, monophthong || From Gr phthongos : voice, sound

phyc– {seaweed, alga}: –phyceae, –phyceous, phycobilin, phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, phycology, phycomycete, phycoxanthine || From ML From Gr phykos : seaweed, alga

phyl– {tribe, clan, race, class}: homophyly, monophyletic, phyle, phyletic, phylogeny, phylum || From Gr phylon : tribe

phylact–, phylax– {to guard, to protect}: anaphylaxis, phylactery, phylaxis, prophylactic, prophylaxis || From Gr phylaktēion : a safeguard From phylassein : to defend From phylax : watchman

phylax– see phylact–

phyll– {leaf}: aphyllous, cladophyll, chlorophyll, Phyllis, phyllode, phyllophagous, phyllopod, phyllotaxy, phylloxera, xanthophyll see also foil– || From ModL From Gr phyllon : leaf

phys– {to blow, to inflate, bellows}: antiphysical, emphysema, physostigmine, physostomous || From Gr physa : bellows

physic– {nature, growth, life, hence: natural science}: astrophysics, geophysical, metaphysics, physic, physical, physician, physics physique same as physio–, phyt– || From L physica : natural science From Gr physikō From physis : nature From phyein : to produce, to become

physi(o)– {nature, growth, life}: apophysis, Monophysite, paraphysis, physiatrics, physiognomy, physiology, physiotherapy, symphysis same as physic–, phyt– see also diphy– || From Gr physis : nature From phyein : to produce, to become

phyt– {nature, growth, hence: plant life}: epiphyte, holophyte, neophyte, phytochemistry, phytoflagellate, phytogenesis, phytogenic, phytography, phytolith, phytology, phyton, phytopathology, phytophagous, phytoplankton, phytosociology, saprophyte, spermatophyte, sporophyte, xerophyte, zoophyte same as physic– compare zo– || From Gr phyton : a plant & phytos : planted; akin to phyein : to grow

pi– {piety}: expiate, impious, Pia, piacular, Pietà, piety, pious, Pope Pius same as pit–2 || From L pius : acting dutifully, dutiful To pietās, pietātus : dutiful conduct, doing one’s duty to the gods & piare : to appease the gods by offering

pia– {soft, tender}: fortepiano, pia mater, pianissimo, pianist, piano (instrument), piano (softly), pianoforte compare dur–1, fort–2 || From It. smooth From L plānus : smooth, flat From IE *pelə‒ : flat, level, to spread out

pic–, pitch– {pitch [tree sap]}: piceous, picoline, pitch, pitchblende || From L pix (gen. picis) : pitch

picr– {bitter}: chloropicrin, picrate, picric acid, picrite, picrotoxin || From Gr pikros : bitter

pict– {to paint, to draw, picture}: depict, pictograph, Pictor, pictorial, picture, picturesque pigment same as pint– || From LL pictura : picture & pictor : painter From pictus, pp. of pingere : to paint

pie(d)– {foot}: cap-à-pie, pied-à-terre, piedmont see also pe–, ped–1, pod–, pus– || From Fr & It From L pedis, gen. of pes : foot From IE *ped– : foot

piez– {to press, pressure}: piezochemistry, piezoelectric, piezometer || From Gr piezein : to press

pil–1 {hair}: caterpillar, depilate, depilatory, horripilation, pilar, pile (as on a carpet), pileous, piliferous, piliform, pilose, pilus pelage || From L pilus : hair

pil–2 {pillar, heap}: compile, pilaster, pile (heap), pillar || From L pila : pillar

pile– {cap}: pileate, pileum, pileus || From L pileus or pileum : felt cap; akin to pilus : hair

pin–1 {pine tree, pine cone}: piña cloth, piña colada, pinaceous, pinaster, piñata, pine, pineal, pineapple, pinene, pinery, pinetum, pinitol, pinnace, piñon || From L pinus : pine tree

pin–2 {to drink}: pinocytosis, pinosome || From Gr pinein : to drink

pince– {to pinch}: pince-nez, pincers || From Fr pincer From OFr pincier From NormFr pincher From VL pinctiare From ?punctiare : to prick

pine– {pain}: pine (to yearn), repine pain same as pen–3, pun– || From ME pinen From OE pinian : to torment From pin : pain From L poena : punishment From Gr poinē : penalty, fine

pinn– {feather, wing}: pinna, pinnacle, pinnate, pinnatifid, pinnatisect, pinniped, pinnule same as pen–2 || From L pinna : feather

pint– {to paint, painted}: pint, pinta, pintado, pinto paint Sp. pintura same as pict– || From Fr, Sp, Port pint– : painted, to paint From VL pinctare From L picta, fem. pp. of pingere : to paint, to draw

pir– {trial, to attempt}: empirical, empiricism, pirate see also exper– || From Gr peiratēs From peirān : to attempt, to attack From peira : a trial, experiment

pisc– {fish}: piscary, piscatorial, Pisces, pisciculture, pisciform, piscine, piscivorous porpoise Sp. pescado Fr. poisson || From L piscis : fish

pist–, pest–2 {pestle, to pound}: pestle, pesto, pistil, piston, piste unrelated: pistol || From LL pistare, freq. of pinsere : to stamp, to pound, to crush To pistor : grinder, miller

pit–1 {to seek favor, favorable}: propitiate, propitious || From L propitiare : to soothe, to propitiate, to appease To propitius : favorable, propitious

pit–2 {piety, to have pious compassion}: pitiful, pittance, pity same as pi– || From L pietas : piety

pitch– see pic–

pithec– {ape}: Australopithecus, Cercopithecidae, Cercopithecus, Dryopithecus, Gigantopithecus, Pithecanthropus, pithecoid || From ModL From Gr pithēkos : ape

plac–1 {calm, to soothe, to please, to be agreeable}: complacent, implacable, non placet, placate, placebo, Placentia, placid; complaisant same as plea– || From L placere : to please; placidus : gentle, mild; placare : to calm, to soothe

plac–2 {flat cake, flat object}: placenta, placoid || From Gr plakous– : flat cake From plax : flat plate, tablet

place– {a place, to put in place}: displace, emplace, irreplaceable, misplace, place, placement, placer, replace plaza It. piazza see also plat–, platy– || From OFr From L platea : a broad street (in LL, an open place) From Gr plateia : street From platys : broad From IE *pelə– : flat, to smooth out

plag(i)– {side, oblique, slanted}: plagal, plage, plagiocephaly, plagioclase, plagiotropic unrelated: plague, plagiarism || From MGr plagios : plagal From Gr plagos : side

plain–1 {lament}: complain, complaint, plaint, plaintiff, plaintive plangent || From L planctus : lamentation, pp. of plangere : to beat the breast, to lament

plain–2 {level, flat}: explain, peneplain, plain same as plan–2 see also place–, plat–, platy– || From L planus : flat, level & planare : to plane, to make level From IE *pelə– : flat, level, to spread out

plait– {to fold, to plait, to weave}: plait pleat same as play–, ple–, plex–, pli–, plic–, ploy–, ply– || From ME pleit From OFr From L plicta From pp. of plicare : to fold From IE *plek– : to plait, to fold

plan–1 {to wander, to drift}: planet, planetary, planetesimal, plankton || ME planete From OFr From LL planeta From Gr planētēs : wanderer From planan : to lead astray, wander

plan–2 {level, flat}: airplane, esplanade, explanation, hydroplane, plan, planarian, plane (all senses), Plano same as plain–2 see also place–, plat–, platy– || From L planus : flat, level & planare : to plane, to make level From IE *pelə– : flat, level, to spread out

plant–1 {sole of the foot}: plantar, plantigrade, supplant || From L planta : sole of the foot

plant–2 {to plant}: implant, plant, plantation, planter, transplant || From L planta, prob. back-formation From plantare : to smooth the soil for planting

plasia– {to mold, to form}: achondroplasia, dysplasia, cataplasia, metaplasia same as plasm–, plast– || From Gr plasis : a molding From plassein : to mold From IE *pelə– : flat, to smooth out

plasm– {molded, formed}: cytoplasm, ectoplasm, idioplasm, metaplasm, neoplasm, plasma, plasmodium, protoplasm same as plasia–, plast– || From Gr plasma : something molded From plassein : to mold From IE *pelə– : flat, to smooth out

plast– {to mold, to form}: anaplastic, aplastic, arthroplasty, dermatoplasty, neoplastic, plaster, plastic, plasticize, plastid, plastique, plastomer, –plasty same as plasia–, plasm– || From L plasticus From Gr plastikos From plassein : to form, to mold From IE *pelə– : flat, to smooth out

plat– {broad, flat}: plate, plateau, platelet, platen, platform, platinum, platitude, Plattdeutsch, Platte River, platter same as plain–2, plan–2, platy– || From VL plattus From Gr platys : broad, flat From IE *pelə– : flat, to smooth out

platy– {broad, flat}: platyhelminth, platypus, platyrrhine same as plain–2, plan–2, plat– see also place– || From Gr platys : broad, flat From IE *pelə– : flat, to smooth out

plaud–, plaus– {to applaud}: applaud, applause, plaudit, plausible same as plod–, plos– || From L plausum, pp. of plaudere : to clap hands, to strike

plaus– see plaud–

play– {to fold, to plait, to weave}: display, splay unrelated: play same as plait–, ple–, plex–, pli–, plic–, ploy–, ply– || From ME displayen From Ang-Norm despleier From ML displicare : to unfold From plicare : to fold From IE *plek– : to plait, to fold

ple–, plet–1 {–fold; e.g. threefold}: multiple, triple, triplet, quadruple, quadruplet, quintuple, sextuple, septuple, octuple double, doublet, treble same as plait–, play–, plex–, pli–, plic–, ploy–, ply– || From Fr From ML –plare (as duplare, triplare) From –plus (as in duplus, triplus) : to fold From IE *plek– : to plait, to fold

plea– {to please}: displease, plea, plead, pleasant, please, pleasure, unpleasant complaisant Fr. s’il vous plaît same as plac–1 || From ME plaisen From MFr plaisir From L placere : to please; akin to placidus : gentle, mild; placare : to calm, to soothe

pleb– {the common people}: plebe, plebeian, plebiscite, plebs || From L plebs : in Roman society, the lower classes, the common people, the masses

plegi– {stroke}: diplegia, hemiplegia, paraplegia, –plegia, quadraplegic apoplexy || From Gr –plēgia From plēgē : a stroke; akin to plēssein : to strike From IE *plāk– : to strike

plei– see pleo–

pleisto– {most}: Pleistocene pleisto– is the superlative form of poly– (many) and pleo– or pleio– (more) see also plur– || From Gr pleistos : most From IE *plēisto–, superlative form of *pel(ə)– : to fill, abundance, multitude

plem– {to fill}: complement, implement, supplement compliment, comply same as plen–, plet–2 || From L plere : to fill From IE *pel– or *pelə– : to fill

plen– {to fill}: plenary, plenipotentiary, plenitude, plenteous, plentiful, plenty, plenum, replenish supply same as plem–, plet–2 compare vac– || From L plenitas From plenus : full & plere : to fill From IE *pel– or *pelə– : to fill

pleo–, plei– {more}: Pleiocene, pleiotaxy, pleiotropism, pleochroism, pleomorphism, pleonasm Pliocene positive form: poly– (many, much), comparative form: pleo– (more), superlative form: pleisto– (most) see also plur– || From Gr pleon : more From IE *plēion–, extended form of *pel(ə)– : to fill, abundance, multitude

plet–1 see ple–

plet–2 {to fill}: complete, deplete, expletive, replete accomplish, compleat, compline same as plem–, plen– || From L –pletus, pp. of plere : to fill From IE *pel– or *pelə– : to fill

pleth– {full}: plethora, plethysmograph || From Gr plēthein : to be full

pleur– {side, rib}: pleura, pleurisy, pleurodont, pleuron, pleuropneumonia, pleurotomy || From Gr pleura side, rib

plex– {to fold, to plait, to weave}: amplexicaul, complex, complexion, duplex, fourplex, perplex, plexus, simplex unrelated: apoplexy same as plait–, play–, ple–, pli–, plic–, ploy–, ply– || From L plexus & –plexus (with prefixes) (gen. –plicis) : braided, plaited From IE *plek– : to plait, to fold

pli– {to fold, to plait, to weave}: appliance, compliance, pliable, pliant, pliers, plight (condition), plissé same as plait–, play–, ple–, plex–, plic–, ploy–, ply– || From L plicare (pp. plicātum) : to fold together From IE *plek– : to plait, to fold

plic– {to fold, to plait, to weave}: accomplice, applicable, application, complicate, complice, complicity, duplicate, duplicity, explicate, explicit, implicate, implicit, inexplicable, multiplicand, multiplication, multiplicity, plica, plicate, plication, replica, replicate, supplicate, triplicate appliqué, supple same as plait–, play–, ple–, plex–, pli–, ploy–, ply– || From L plicare (pp. plicātum) : to fold together & –plexus (with prefixes) (gen. –plicis) : braided, plaited From IE *plek– : to plait, to fold

plod– {to clap}: displode, explode, implode same as plaud–, plos– || From L –plōsum, pp. of –plōdere (with prefixes) From plaudere : to applaud, to clap, to beat

ploid– {having the specified number}: diploid, haploid, hyperploid, ploidy, polyploid || From –ploid, as in diploid From Gr diploos : double + –oid : having the form of

plor– {to cry out, to wail}: deplore, explore, implore || From L plōrare : to lament, to wail, to cry aloud

plos– {to clap}: explosion, explosive, implosion, plosive same as plaud–, plod– || From L –plōdere (pp. –plōsum) (with prefixes) From plaudere : to applaud, to clap, to beat

ploy– {to fold, to plait, to weave}: deploy, employ, ploy exploit same as plait–, play–, ple–, plex–, pli–, plic–, ply– || From OFr From L plicare (pp. plicātum) : to fold together & –plexus (with prefixes) (gen. –plicis) : braided, plaited From IE *plek– : to plait, to fold

plum– {feather}: deplume, nom de plume, plumage, plumate, plume, plumose, plumule || From L pluma : downy part of a feather, small soft feather

plumb– {the metal lead}: plumb (all senses), plumbago, plumbeous, plumber, plumbic, plumbiferous, plumbing, plumbism, plumbous aplomb, plummet, plunge, plunger || From L plumbum : lead, the metal

plur–, plus– {more}: e pluribus unum, ne plus ultra, nonplus, plural, pluralism, pluriaxial, plus, plus ça change, plus c’est la même chose, plus fours, surplus pluperfect comparative of multi– see also pleo–, poly– see also Appendix C || From L plūs (gen. plūris) : more; (compar. of multus) From IE *pleu–, extended form of *pel(ə)– : to fill, abundance, multitude

plus– see plur–

pluto–1 {Pluto, god of the underworld, hence: the hot regions under the earth}: Pluto (god), Pluto (planet), Plutonian, plutonic, plutonium see also pluto–2 The Roman and Greek god Pluto and the Greek god Plutus are not the same, although their names derive from the same source. Plutus was the blind god of wealth. Pluto was the god of the underworld, but came to be associated with wealth, because of the notion that wealth came from beneath the earth (i.e., gold and silver). The planet Pluto is named after Pluto. || From L Pluto From Gr Ploutos From ploutos : wealth

pluto–2 {wealth}: plutocracy, plutocrat Plutus (god of wealth) see also pluto–1 || From Gr ploutos : wealth

pluv– {rain}: pluvial, pluviometer, pluviose || From L pluvia : rain From pluere (pp. plūvit or pluit) : to rain

ply– {to fold, to plait, to weave}: apply, four-ply, imply, multiply, ply (all senses), plywood, reply, two-ply same as plait–, play–, ple–, plex–, pli–, plic–, ploy– || From OFr From L plicare (pp. plicātum) : to fold together & –plexus (with prefixes) (gen. –plicis) : braided, plaited From IE *plek– : to plait, to fold

pnea– {to breathe}: apnea, dyspnea, eupnea, hyperpnea, hypopnea, polypnea, tachypnea see also pneum– || From Gr pnoiē : breathing From pnein : to breath

pneum– {lungs, breath, air, spirit}: pneuma, pneumatic, pneumatology, pneumatolysis, pneumatometer, pneumatophore, pneumobacillus, pneumococcus, pneumonia, pneumonic, pneumothorax see also pnea–, pulmon– || From Gr pneuma (gen. pneumatos) : air, spirit, breath From pnein : to breathe

pod– {foot}: apodal, antipodes, arthropod, cephalopod, chiropodist, gastropod, podagra, podiatry, podium, sympodium, tripod same as pus– see also pe–, ped–1, pied– || From Gr podos, gen. of pous : foot From IE *pōd– From *ped– : foot

poe– {to make}: chrysopoeia, onomatopoeia, pharmacopoeia, poem, poesy, poet, poetry, prosopopoeia || From Gr poiein : to make

pogon– {beard}: pogonia, Pogonatum, Pogonomyrmex, pogonophoran || From Gr pōgōn : beard

point– {point, to prick}: appoint, appointment, counterpoint, disappoint, point, point-blank, point-device, pointer, pointillism, standpoint poignant same as punct–, pung–, punt– || From OFr point : point, prick From L punctum, pp. of pungere : to prick, to puncture, to stab

pol–1 {to polish, to adorn}: extrapolate, interpolate, polish, polite, politesse || From L polire (pp. polītus) : to polish To interpolare (pp. interpolātus) : to refurbish, to touch up To extrapolate

pol–2 {Poland, the Polish people}: polka, polka dot, polonaise, polonium || From Poland From Polans (original Polish tribes)

pol–3 {to sell, seller}: bibliopole, duopoly, monopolize, monopoly, oligopoly compare opson– || From L From Gr pōlein : to sell

polic– {city}: police, policlinic, policy (plans, principles) unrelated: policy (insurance) same as polis–, polit– || From Fr From LL polītia : administration of the state From Gr politeia : the state, citizenship From politēs : citizen From polis : city

polis– {city}: Acropolis, Annapolis, Heliopolis, Indianapolis, megalopolis, metropolis, Minneapolis, necropolis Constantinople same as polic–, polit– || From Gr polis : city

polit– {city}: cosmopolitan, metropolitan, Neapolitan, politic, politics, polity same as polic–, polis– || From LL polītia : administration of the state From Gr politeia : the state, citizenship From politēs : citizen From polis : city

poll– {head}: poll, polled, pollard, polliwog poleaxe || From ME pol From MDu or MlowG

poly– {more than one, more, many}: polyclinic, polyester, polygamy, polyglot, polygon, polygraph, polyhedron, polymer, Polynesia, polynomial, polyp, polysyllabic, polytechnic, polytheism positive form: poly (many, much), comparative form: pleo– (more), superlative form: pleisto– (most) see also plur–, polyp– || From Gr poly– From polys : much, more From IE *polu–, extended form of *pel(ə)– : to fill, abundance, multitude

polyp– {polyp}: polyp, polypary, polypide, polypoid comb. of poly– + pus– || From L polypus From Gr polypous : polyp From poly– : more, many + pous : foot

pom– {fruit, apple}: pomace, pomaceous, pomade, pomander, pome, pomegranate, pomelo, pomiferous, pommel, pomiculture, pomiferous, pomology, Pomona Fr. pomme || From L pomum : fruit (VL : apple). Also L Pomona, goddess of fruit trees

pon–1 {to put}: component, depone, deponent, exponent, exponential, opponent, postpone, proponent same as pos–1, post–1, pot–1, pound–1 || From L pōnere : to put; (pp. positum and postum) From IE *apo– : off, away; root of a variety of adverbs and prepositions indicating placement or position away (from)

pon–2 {to toil}: geoponic, lithopone || From Gr ponein : to toil From ponos : work, toil

ponder– {to weigh, weight, heavy}: imponderable, ponder, ponderosa pine, ponderous, preponderance pound (unit of weight or currency) see also pend– || From L ponderare : to weigh, to ponder From pondus (gen. ponderis) : weight

pont– {bridge}: pontifex, pontiff, pontificate, pontonier, pontoon, transpontine punt (boat), pons Fr. pont Sp. puente || From L pontis, gen. of pons : bridge From IE *pont– From *pent– : to step, to tread, to go

popul– {people}: depopulate, populace, popular, populate, population, populist, populous, vox populi pueblo same as publ– || From L populus : a people, a nation To populāris : of the people, belonging to the same people or country, native •pueblo From AmSp From Sp pueblo : village, people, nation From L populus

por–1 {passage, way}: aporia, emporium, gonopore, pore, poriferan, poromeric, porous || From LL porus From Gr poros : passage

por–2 {forward, ahead}: portend, portent, portrait, portray same as pro–, pur–2 || From L pro : before, in front

porc– {swine}: porcelain, porcine, porcupine pork, porpoise || From L porca : sow (dim. porcella, porcellus) To porcīnus : of swine

porphyr– {purple}: porphyria, porphyrin, porphyritic, porphyroid, porphyropsin, porphyry see also purpur– || From Gr porphyra : a shellfish providing a purple dye

port–1 {to carry, to bear}: colporteur, comport, deport, deportment, disport, export, import, important, portable, portage, portamento, porter (bearer), portfolio, portly, portmanteau, purport, rapport, report, sport, support, teleportation, transport, transportation || From L portare : to carry, to convey

port–2 {gate}: passport, port (gateway, opening), portal, portcullis, porter (gatekeeper), porterhouse, porthole, portico, portière porch || From L porta : gate

port–3 {harbor, port, haven}: importune, opportune, opportunity, passport, port (harbor), Portland, Portsmouth, Portugal || From L portus : harbor, port, haven

portion– {part}: apportion, portion, proportion see also part– || From L portio (gen. portionis) : part, section, division From pars : part

pos–1 {to put}: apposite, apposition, apropos, compose, composite, composition, decompose, depose, deposit, deposition, disposal, dispose, disposition, expose, exposé, exposition, expository, exposure, impose, interpose, juxtaposition, malapropos, non compos mentis, oppose, opposite, ovipositor, position, positive, positron, predispose, preposition, propose, proposition, purpose, repose, repository, superimpose, suppose, supposition, suppository, transpose same as pon–1, post–1, pot–1, pound–1 || From L –posui, prp. of –pōnere (with prefixes) : to put & pp. –positum, –positus From IE *apo– : off, away; root of a variety of adverbs and prepositions indicating placement or position away (from)

pos–2 {to drink}: symposiarch, symposium see also pot–2 || From Gr posis : drinking

poss– {to be able, to have power}: posse, possess, possible same as potent– || From L posse : to be able, to have power, power To prp. potens : able, powerful

post–1 {to put}: compost, impostor, post (base, station), post (mail), poster, posthaste, postilion, posture unrelated: post (stake), post (to place a notice) same as pon–1, pos–1, pot–1, pound–1 || From L postum & positum, pp. of pōnere : to put From IE *apo– : off, away; root of a variety of adverbs and prepositions indicating placement or position away (from)

post–2 {after, behind}: ex post facto, postdate, posterior, posterity, postern, postgraduate, posthumous, postlude, post meridiem, post-mortem, postnasal, postoperative, postpartum, postpone, postprandial, postscript, postwar, preposterous compare pre–, ante– see also Appendix B || From L post : behind, after

postul– {to request, to require, to demand, to claim, to assume}: expostulate, postulant, postulate || From L postulare : to claim, to demand, to request; akin to posco : to request, to ask earnestly

pot–1 {to put}: compote, depot, entrepôt same as post–1 || From Fr From L postum & positum, pp. of pōnere : to put From IE *apo– : off, away; root of a variety of adverbs and prepositions indicating placement or position away (from)

pot–2 {to drink}: potable, potation, potatory, potion poison see also pos–2 || From L pōtare : to drink To pōtio : a drinking & pōtator : drinker

pot–3 {pot}: pot, potash, potassium, potbelly, poteen, potherb, pothole, potiche, potluck, potpourri, potsherd, pottage, potter, pottery, pottle, potty || From ME pott From OE From ML pottus From ? VL potus From L pōtare : to drink

potam– {river}: hippopotamus, Mesopotamia, potamology || From Gr potamos : rushing waters, river

potent– {ability, power}: impotent, omnipotent, plenipotentiary, potent, potentate, potential, potentilla, potentiometer, prepotent, totipotent despot same as poss– || From L potentia : power, might, ability From potens (prp. of posse : to be able, to have power)

poul– {chicken}: poulard, poule, poult, poultry poltroon same as pull– || From Fr poule : hen From L pullus : chicken

pound–1 {to put}: compound (something put together), expound, propound unrelated: compound (enclosed area), pound (to beat), pound (weight) same as pon–1, pos–1, pot–1, post–1 || From ME –pounden (with prefixes) From OFr –pondre From L pōnere : to put From IE *apo– : off, away; root of a variety of adverbs and prepositions indicating placement or position away (from)

pound–2 {to shut in, to confine}: impound, pound (place of impound) unrelated: compound (enclosed area), pound (to beat), pound (weight) || From ME poonde From OE pund– (in combinations); akin to pyndan : to shut up

pover– {poor}: impoverish, poverty pauper Fr. pauvre Sp. pobre || From ME From OFr povrir From povre From L pauper : poor

pract– {to make, to do}: chiropractor, malpractice, practicable, practical, practice, practicum, practitioner pragmatic same as prax– || From LL practicus From Gr praktikos From concerning action, practical From prassein : to do To pragma : business, thing done To pragmatikos To L pragmaticus : skilled in business or law

prae– {before, preceding}: praefect, praemunire, praenomen, praetor, praetorian same as pre– || From L prae– : before, in front, preceding

praise– {worth, value}: appraise, praise same as preci– || From ME praisen From OFr preisier From LL pretier From L pretium : worth, price

prandi– {to eat a meal}: postprandial, prandial, preprandial || From L prandium : late breakfast, lunch

pras– {leek-green}: prase, praseodymium || From L prasius From Gr prasios : leek-green

prat– {prairie, meadow}: pratincole prairie || From L pratum : meadow •prairie From OFr From L pratum

prax– {to make, to do}: apraxia, praxiology, praxis same as pract– || From ML From Gr prassein : to do

pre– {before, preceding}: dementia praecox, omnipresent, preamble, precaution, precede, precedent, precept, precinct, precipice, precipitate, precise, preclude, precocious, preconceive, precursor, predecessor, predestine, predicament, predicate, predict, predilection, predominant, preeminent, preempt, prefabricate, preface, prefecture, prefer, prefix, prefrontal, pregnant, preignition, prejudice, prelate, preliminary, prelude, premarital, premature, premise, premium, premonition, prenatal, prenuptial, preoccupy, preordain, prepaid, prepare, prepense, preponderance, preposition, preprandial, prerequisite, presage, preschool, prescient, prescribe, prescription, present, preserve, preset, president, presidium, prestige, presume, pretend, pretrial, prevail, prevaricate, prevent, preview, previous this list is not exhaustive comparative form: preter– same as prae– compare post–2 || From L prae– : before, in front, preceding From IE *prai– : before, in front, first From *per– : base of many prepositions and prefixes with the sense of “before, in front, early, first”

prec– {to plead, to pray}: deprecate, imprecate, precarious, precatory || From L precari : to pray From prex (gen. precis) : a request

preci– {value}: appreciable, appreciate, depreciate, preciosity, precious price, prize (reward, winnings, to value) same as praise– || From OFr From L pretium : price, worth To pretiōsus : costly, precious, of great value

pred– {prey, to seize}: depredate, predacious, predator same as prey– see also prehend–, pren–, pris– || From L praeda : prey, plunder, booty To praedari : to plunder, to carry off; praedātor : plunderer, greedy person

prehend–, prehens– {to seize, to grasp}: apprehend, apprehensive, comprehend, comprehensive, prehensile, reprehend, reprehensible same as pren–, pris– see also pred–, prey– || From L prehendere (pp. prehensum) : to seize, to grasp To prehenso, prenso, freq. of prehendere

prehens– see prehend–

prem– see prim–2

pren– {to seize, to grasp}: apprentice, entrepreneur impregnable same as prehend–, pris– see also pred–, prey– || From OFr –prendre (in comb. apprendre, entreprendre) From L prehendere : to seize, to grasp

presby– {old man, elder}: presbycusis, presbyopia, presbyter, presbyterian priest, Prester John || From Gr presbys : old

press– {to strike, to push, to press}: appressed, compress, decompress, depress, espresso, express, impress, oppress, press, pressure, repress, suppress same as prim–1 || From L premere (pp. pressum, freq. pressare, adj. pressus) : to press, to squeeze

prest– {quick}: prestidigitation, prestissimo, presto || From Fr. preste : quick & It. presto : quick, nimble From L praesto : present, at hand, ready

preter– {beyond}: preterit, preterition, pretermit, preternatural comparative of pre– see also Appendix C || From L praeter : beyond, past; comparative of prae– : before From IE *prai– : before, in front, first From *per– : base of many prepositions and prefixes with the sense of “before, in front, early, first”

prey– {prey, plunder}: osprey, prey same as pred– see also prehend–, pren–, pris– || From ME preye From OFr preie From L praeda : prey, plunder, booty

pri– {early, ancient, preceding}: Priscilla, pristine comparative form: prior– superlative forms: prim–2 see also pro– See also Appendix C || From OL pri : early, preceding To prior (comparative form) : earlier & primus (superlative form) : earliest, first, foremost From IE *prai– : before, in front, first From *per– : base of many prepositions and prefixes with the sense of “before, in front, early, first”

priap– {Priapus, the Greek and Roman god of fertility and procreation; hence: phallus}: priapic, priapism, priapus || From L Priapus From Gr priapos : Priapus, god of fertility and procreation

prim–1, print– {to strike, to push, to press}: imprimatur, imprint, print, reprimand same as press– || •print From ME prente From OFr From preint, pp. of preindre From L premere : to press. •imprimatur & reprimand From L –primere (in comb.) From premere

prim–2, prem– {first, foremost}: comprimario, imprimis, premier, première, prima ballerina, primacy, prima donna, prima facie, primal, primary, primate, prime, primer, primeval, primipara, primitive, primo, primogenitor, primogeniture, primordial, primrose, primus inter pares superlative of pri– see also princip– See also Appendix C || From OL pri : early; comparative prior : earlier; superlative primus : earliest, first To adj. prīmārius & prīmitus. •prem– From Fr From L primus From IE *prai– : before, in front, first From *per– : base of many prepositions and prefixes with the sense of “before, in front, early, first”

princip– {first}: principal, principality, principle prince, princess see also prim–2 See also Appendix C || From OFr From L princeps : first, foremost From primus : first + capere : to take. primus From IE *prai– : before, in front, first From *per– : base of many prepositions and prefixes with the sense of “before, in front, early, first”

print– see prim–1

prior– {earlier, before, preceding}: a priori, prior, prioress, priority, priory comparative of pri– See also Appendix C || From OL pri : early; comparative prior : earlier; superlative primus : earliest, first From IE *prai– : before, in front, first From *per– : base of many prepositions and prefixes with the sense of “before, in front, early, first”

pris– {to seize, to grasp}: apprise, comprise, enterprise, misprision, prise, prison, reprisal, reprise, surprise impresario, prize (captured ship), pry same as prehend–, pren– see also pred–, prey– || From OFr –pris (in comb.), pp. of –prendre From L prehendere : to seize •prison From OFr From L From prensio From prehensio : a taking From prehendere

priv– {to separate, to deprive}: deprive, private, privateer, privative, privation, privilege, privity, privy || From L prīvātus : one’s own, not state property From prīvare : to separate, to deprive From prīvus : separate, peculiar

pro– {for, before, forth, ahead}: apropos, compromise, improvise, pro, proboscis, proceed, process, proclaim, procrastinate, procreate, procure, prodigal, prodigy, produce, profane, profess, proffer, proficient, profile, profit, profound, profuse, progenitor, prognosis, program, progress, prohibit, project, prol–, prologue, prolong, promenade, prominent, promiscuous, promise, promontory, promote, prompt, prone, pronoun, pronounce, propaganda, propagate, propel, prophet, prophylactic, proponent, proportion, propose, proscribe, prose, prosecute, prosoma, prospect, prosper, prostate, prostitute, prostrate, protagonist, protect, protest, protract, protrude, proud, proverb, provide, province, provoke, reciprocal extended form: proto– same as por–2, pur–2 see also pri– compare anti–2, opistho– || From L pro : before, forward From Gr pro : before From IE *prō– : forward From *per– : base of many prepositions and prefixes with the sense of “before, in front, early, first”

proach– {nearer, to draw nearer}: approach, reproach rapprochement comparative of prop– See also Appendix C || From ME –prochen (in comb.) From OFr –prochier From VL –propiare : to draw nearer From L propius : nearer (compar. of prope : near)

prob– {to prove, to prove good, good}: approbation, improbable, probability, probable, probate, probation, probe, probity, reprobate same as prov– || From L probare : to test, to prove From probus : good, proper To probātio : a proving, a trial & probābilis : that can be proved, hence: probable

proct– {rectum}: ectoproct, proctodæum, proctology, proctoscope unrelated: proctor || From Gr prōktos : anus

prodig– {unnatural, wonderful}: prodigious, prodigy unrelated: prodigal || From L prōdigium : prodigy, portent, ominous sign To prōdigiōsus : unnatural, strange, wonderful

prol– {offspring}: proletarian, proliferate, prolific comb. of pro– + al–3 || From L prōlētārius : citizen of the lowest class who served the state only by having children From prōles : offspring From pro : for + alere : to rear, to feed

prompt– {brought forth, ready}: impromptu, prompt comb. of pro– + empt || From L promptus : ready, at hand, pp. of prōmere : to bring forth, to produce From pro : forward, forth + emere (pp. emptum) : take, to buy

prop– {near}: propinquity comparative form: proach– superlative form: proxim– See also Appendix C || From L propinquus From prope : near

propag– {to spread, to reproduce}: propaganda, propagate || From L prōpagare : to spread, to propagate (plants) To propāgātio : a spreading, propagation; From pro– : forward + pangere : to fix in place, to drive in

propr– {one’s own, particular}: amour-propre, appropriate, appropriation, expropriate, improper, impropriate, impropriety, proper, property, proprietary, proprietor, proprioceptor || From L proprius : one’s own, special, particular, peculiar To proprietās : a property, peculiarity

pros– {to, toward, near}: proselyte, prosencephalon, prosenchyma, prosody, prosthesis, prosthetic, prosthodontics more at prosop– || From Gr pros : to, toward, near

prosop– {person, face}: prosopagnosia, prosopography, prosopopoeia comb. of pros– + op–2 || From Gr pros : near + ōps : eye

protero– {forward, earlier, former}: hysteron proteron, proteroglyphous, Proterozoic comparative of pro– compare hyster–2 || From Gr prōteros : former, anterior, From prōto : forward From Gr pro : before From IE *prō– : forward From *per– : base of many prepositions and prefixes with the sense of “before, in front, early, first”

prot(o)– {first, earliest}: protactinium, protagonist, protanopia, protein, protist, protocol, Proto-Indo-European, proton, protoplasm, prototype, protozoan extension of pro– || From Gr prōto From prōtos : first

prov– {to prove, to prove good, good}: approve, disapprove, disprove, improve, prove, reprove same as prob– || From ME proven From OFr prover From L probare : to test, to prove From probus : good, proper

proxim– {nearest, next}: approximate, Proxima Centauri, proximal, proximity, proximo superlative of prop– compare ultim– See also Appendix C || From L proxime : nearest To proximitās nearness; superlative of prope : near

prudence– see prudent–

prudent–, prudence– {to foresee, to have knowledge}: jurisprudence, prudence, prudent, prudential from provident, comb. of pro– + vid– || From L prūdentia : foreseeing, knowledge From prūdens (gen. prūdentis) : foreseeing; From contr. of prōvidens : provident, prudent From prōvidēre : to look ahead From pro : forward + vidēre : to see

pruri– {to itch, to long for, to be lecherous}: antipruritic, prurient, prurigo, pruritus || From L prūrire : to itch

psamm– {sand}: psammite, psammon, psammophilous, psammophore || From Gr psammos : sand

pseudo– {false}: pseudocarp, pseudomorph, pseudonym, pseudoscientific || From Gr pseudo– From pseudēs : false From pseudein : to deceive

psilo– {bare}: psilocin, psilocybin, psilomelane, psilophyte || From Gr psilos : bare

psych– {spirit, soul, mind}: metempsychosis, psyche, psychedelic, psychiatry, psychic, psychoanalysis, psychology, psychopath, psychosis, psychosomatic, psychotherapy, psychotic || From Gr psychē : breath, spirit, soul; akin to psychein : to blow, cool

psychro– {cold}: psychrometer, psychrophilic || From Gr psychros : cold; akin to psychein : to cool

pter– {feather, wing}: apterous, apteryx, brachypterous, Chiroptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, helicopter, Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Mecoptera, ornithopter, pterodactyl, pterosaur, Siphonoptera, Trichoptera accipiter || From Gr pteron : wing, feather From IE *pet– : to rush, to fly

ptom–, ptos–, ptot– {to fall}: apoptosis, asymptote, proptosis, ptomaine, ptosis, symptom || From Gr ptōma : corpse; ptōsis : a fall, falling; –ptōtos (in comb.); all From piptein : to fall

ptos– see ptom–

ptot– see ptom–

pty– {to spit}: hemoptysis, ptyalin, ptyalism || From Gr ptyein : to spit

ptych– {fold}: diptych, polyptych, triptych || From Gr –ptychos (in comb.) : folded From ptychē : a fold From ptyssein : to fold

pub– {adult, adult hair, pubic hair}: puberty, puberulent, pubes, pubescent, pubic, pubis || From L pūbēs : the signs of puberty, the growth of hair To pūbertās : puberty, the age of maturity

publ– {people}: public, publican, publication, publicity, publicize, publish, republic same as popul– || From L publicus : belonging to the people, public From populus : a people, a nation

pud– {shame}: impudent, impudicity, pudency, pudendum, repudiate || From L pudēre : to be ashamed To ger. pudendus & prp. pudens : modest, shamefaced

puer– {child}: puerile, puerperal, puerperium || From L puer : child

pugn– {fist, to fight}: impugn, oppugn, pugnacious, repugn, repugnant || From L pugnare : to fight

pull– {chicken}: pullet, pullorum disease same as poul– || From L pullus : chicken

pulmo(n)– {lung}: pulmonary, pulmonate, pulmonic, pulmotor see also pneum– || From L pulmo (gen. pulmonis) : lung

puls– {to beat, to push}: compulsion, compulsive, compulsory, expulsion, impulse, impulsive, propulsion, pulsar, pulsate, pulse, pulsimeter, repulse, repulsive same as pel–1 || From L pulsum, pp of pellere : to set in motion, to drive, to push

pulv– {cushion, pillow}: pulvillus, pulvinate, pulvinus || From L pulvinus (dim. pulvillus) : cushion

pulver– {power, dust}: pulverable, pulverize, pulverulent Sp. polvo || From L pulveris, gen. of pulvis : powder, dust

pun– {to punish}: impunity, punish, punitive same as pen–3, pine– || From L pūnire, poenire : to punish From poena : punishment From Gr poinē : penalty, fine

punct– {point, to prick}: acupuncture, compunction, expunction, punctilio, punctilious, punctual, punctuate, puncture Ger. Punkt same as point–, pung–, punt– || From L punctum pp. of pungere : to prick, to puncture, to stab

pung– {to prick}: expunge, pungent same as point–, punct–, punt– || From L pungere (pp. punctum) : to prick, to puncture, to stab

punt– {point}: contrapuntal, punt (to bet), trapunto pun unrelated: punt (boat) same as point–, punct–, pung– || From Fr punter, It. punto, Sp punto : point From L punctum, pp of pungere : to prick, to puncture, to stab

pup– {boy, girl, child}: pup, pupa, pupate, pupil (all senses), pupillary, pupiparous, puppet, puppy || From L pūpa : little girl To dim. pūpillus, pūpilla : orphan, ward, minor; pūpus : boy child, dim. pūpūlus; dim. pūpūla : pupil of the eye; pūpillāris : of an orphan or ward. •puppet & puppy of uncertain origin but probably from pūpa

pur–1 {clean, pure}: impure, pure, purblind, purebred, purée, purge (→purg–), purify, purist, Puritan, puritanical, purity || From L pūrus : clean, pure, simple To pūritās : purity

pur–2 {for, forth, forward}: purchase, purfle, purlieu, purloin, purport, purpose, pursue, purvey, purview same as por–2, pro– || From OFr. pour– From L pro : forward, ahead From IE *prai– : before, in front, first From *per– : base of many prepositions and prefixes with the sense of “before, in front, early, first”

pur–3 {pus}: purulent, seropurulent, suppurate pus see also py– || From L pūris, gen. of pūs : corrupt matter To pūrulentis From IE *pu– : to rot, to decay

purg– {to cleanse, to purify}: compurgation, expurgate, purgative, purgatory, purge comb. of pur–1 + ag– || From L purgare : to cleanse To purgātio : a cleansing, a purification To pūrus : pure + agere : to set in motion, to drive

purpl– see purpur–

purp(ur)– {purple}: purple, purplish, purpura, purpure, purpurin see also porphyr– || From ModL From L purpura : purple From Gr porphyra : a shellfish providing a purple dye

pus– {foot}: octopus, polypus (polyp), platypus same as pod– see also ped–1, pied–, polyp– || From Gr pous (gen. podos) : foot From IE *pōd– From *ped– : foot

put– {to cleanse, to clear up, to lop, to prune, to settle [accounts], to reckon, to think over, to consider}: amputate, compute, computer, computation, deputation, deputy, dispute, disreputable, impute, putative, reputation, repute more at count–1 || From L putare : to prune, to clear up, to settle, to consider, to reckon, to value, to believe, to think

putr– {to rot}: putrefaction, putrefy, putrescent, putrescine, putrid || From L puter, putris : rotten, putrid To putridus : rotten, decayed; putrescere : to become rotten, to decay From IE *pu– : to rot, to decay

py– {pus}: empyema, pyemia, pyogenesis, pyorrhea, pyosis, pyuria see also pur–3 || From Gr pyon : pus From IE *pu– : to rot, to decay

pycn–, pykn– {thick, dense}: pycnidium, pycnogonid, pycnometer, pyknic, pyknosis || From ModL From Gr pyknos : thick, tight

pyel– {basin}: pyelitis, pyelography, pyelonephritis || From Gr pyelos : basin

pyg– {body posterior, buttocks}: callipygian, pygidium, steatopygia unrelated: pygmy || From Gr pygē : rump To dim. pygidion

pykn– see pycn–

pyl– {gate}: propylaeum, propylite, pylon, pylorectomy, pylorus || From Gr. pylōn : gateway To pylōrus : gatekeeper; akin to pylē : gate

pyr– {fire, heat, hence: fever}: antipyretic, chalcopyrite, empyrean, pyracantha, pyre, pyretic, Pyrex™, pyrite, pyroclastic, pyrolysis, pyromania, pyrometer, pyrotechnics unrelated: pyramid see also pyrrh– || From Gr pyr (gen. pyros) : fire

pyrrh– {red, the color of fire}: pyrrhotite, Pyrrhuloxia pyrrole unrelated: Pyrrhic see also pyr– || From Gr pyrrhotēs : redness From pyrrhos : flame-colored From pyr (gen. pyros) : fire

pyx– {box}: pyx, pyxidium, pyxie, pyxis || From L pyxis From Gr pyxos : box tree To dim. pyxidion

Unattested, hypothesized
† Unknown origin

351 entries found.

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