The Cognātarium

racin– {root}: deracinate, Racine see also radic– || From Fr racine : root From LL radicina From L rādix (gen. rādicis) : root

rad– {to scrape}: abrade, corrade, radula same as ras– || From L rādere (gen. rāsum) : to scrape

radi– {ray, to radiate}: irradiate, radial, radian, radiant, radiate, radiator, radio, radiology, radium, radius radon || From L radiare : to radiate From radius : rod, spoke of a wheel, hence: radius, ray of light

radic– {root}: eradicate, radical radish, radix see also racin– || From L rādīcis, gen. of rādix : root

raft– {log}: raft, rafter || From ME rafte : beam, rafter From ON raptr : log

ram– {branch}: biramous, ramate, ramification, ramify, ramose || From L rāmus : bough, branch To rāmōsus : branching

ramp– {to stand upright, to assume a threatening stance}: ramp (all senses except leek), rampant, rampage || From ME rampen From OFr ramper : to climb, to rear, to rise up From

ran– {frog}: ranid, Ranidae, ranula, ranunculus || From L rāna : frog To rānunculus : little frog, tadpole

ranc– {bad-tasting or -smelling}: rancid, rancor rank (strong, coarse) || From L rancidus : stinking, rank From rancēre : to stink, to be rotten

rang– {to put in order}: arrange, derange, range, ranger, rangy rank (line, arrangement) || From ME rangen From OFr ranger From rengier : to arange in a circle or row or rank From of Ger origin

rap– {to rush at, to seize}: enrapture, rapacious, rape, rapid, rapist, rapine, rapt, raptor, rapture surreptitious unrelated: rapier see also rav–, rept–2 || From L rapere (pp. raptum) : to seize To rapīna : plunder, pillage; rapidus : seizing, impetuous, swift; rapācitās : greediness, rapacity; raptor : robber, plunderer

ras–, raz– {to scrape}: abrasion, abrasive, corrasion, erasable, erase, erasure, rasorial, raster, raze, razee, razor, tabula rasa same as rad– || From L rāsum, pp. of rādere : to scrape

rat– {to reason, to reckon, counsel}: irrational, pro rata, prorate, rate, ratify, rating, ratio, ratiocinate, ration, rational, rationale, rationalize || From L ratus : pp of rēri : to reckon, to think, to suppose To ratio (gen. ratiōnis) : a reckoning, calculation

rav– {to rush at, to seize}: ravage, raven (to devour), ravenous, ravin, ravine, ravish, ravishing see also rap–, rept–2 || From OFr ravine From L rapīna From rapere : to seize, to snatch, to tear away

ray– {to make ready, to prepare}: array, disarray curry (to brush, to comb), raiment || From ME arraien From Anglo-Norm arraier From VL –redare (comb. form) : to put in order

raz– see ras–

re–1 {back, again, anew}: arrest, irreplaceable, irrevocable, react, rearrange, rebel, recalcitrant, recapitulate, receive, recess, recipe, recognize, recollect, reconnoiter, record, recreation, recycle, redouble, redress, reduce, redux, re-entry, refectory, refer (→refer–), refine, reflect, reflex, reform, refrain, refresh, refrigerator, refugee, refurbish, refuse, regard, regatta, register, regress, regret, regurgitate, rehabilitate, rehash, rehearse, reimburse, reincarnation, reinforce, reinstate, reiterate, rejoinder, rejuvenate, relate, relax, relay, release, relegate, relent, relevant, reliable, relic, relief, religion, relinquish, relish, reluctant, rely, remain, remand, remark, remedy, remember, reminiscent, remiss, remit, remnant, remora, remote, remuda, renaissance, render (→rend–), rendezvous, renegade, renew, renounce, renovate, renown, rent, repair, reparation, repart, repast, repeal, repeat, repel, repent, repercussion, repertoire, repine, replace, replenish, replica, reply, report, repose, repository, repossess, reprehensible, represent, repress, reprimand, reprisal, reproach, reprobate, reproduction, repudiate, repugnant, reputation, request, requiem, require, rescind, rescue, research, resemble, resent, reservation, reservoir, resident, residual, resilient, resist, resolve, resonate, resort (all senses), resource, respect, respiration, resplendent, respond, rest (all senses), restaurant, restitution, restore, restrain, restrict, result, resume, resurrect, resuscitate, retail, retain, retaliate, retard, reticent, retinue, retire, retort, retract, retreat, retrieve, return, reunion, reveille, revelation, revel, revenge, revenue, reverberate, revere, reverse, revert, revetment, review, revise, revive, revoke, revolution, revolve, reward, revue, unrequited this list is not exhaustive same as red– extended form: retro– || From L re– : again, anew, back

re–2 {thing, matter, affair}: ad rem, in re (as regards), real, reality, realize, realty, rebus, reify, republic, res, surreal || From L res : thing, matter, affair To ModL realis, gen. of res

real– {royal, to rule}: El Camino Real, Montreal, real (monetary unit of various countries), realm same as reg– || From Sp, Fr, Port real : royal From L rēgālis : royal From IE *rēg– : tribal king From *reg– : to move straight, to direct straight, to lead, to rule

rear– {behind}: arrears, rear (behind) unrelated: rear (to raise, to rise) see also retro– || From Anglo-Norm rere : behind From L retro : backward, back, behind

reciproc– {back-and-forth, to alternate, to interchange, to be the same on both sides}: reciprocal, reciprocate, reciprocity comb. of re–1 + pro– || From L reciprocus : returning, going backward and forward From re– : back + pro– : before, forward

rect– {right, upright, straight, straight up}: correct, direct (→direct–), erect, rectangle, rectifier, rectify, rectilinear, rectitude, recto, rector, rectum, rectus more at surrect– same as rig–1 see also reg–, regul– compare vers– || From L rectus : straight, right; ruled, regulated From regere (pp. rectum) : to guide, to direct, to rule From IE *reg– : straight, to lead straight, to lead, to put in order

red– {back, again, anew}: irredentist, redact, redeem, redemption, redintegrate, redivivus, redolent, redound, redundant, reduviid same as re–1, used before vowels || From L red–, re– : back, again, anew

refer– {to refer}: refer, referee, reference, referendum, referent, referral comb. of re–1 + fer–1 || From L referre : to carry back, to bring back From re– : again, anew + ferre : to bear, to carry, to bring

reg– {king, to rule, to regulate}: interregnum, regal, regale, regalia, regency, regent, regicide, regime, regimen, regiment, Regina, Reginald, region, regnant reign, Rex same as real– see also rect–, regul–, roy– || From L regere : to guide, to direct, to lead, to rule ( To regio (gen. regiōnis) : a straight line, a space enclosed by lines, a region; regimen : a directing, a guiding; regnare : to exercise royal authority, to reign; regnum : royal power and authority) From IE *rēg– : tribal king From *reg– : to move straight, to direct straight, to lead, to rule

regul– {to rule, to regulate}: irregular, regular, regulate, regulation, regulus see also reg– || From L regula : straight line From regere : to guide, to rule From IE *reg– : to move straight, to direct straight, to lead, to rule

reme– {oar}: bireme, remex, trireme || From L rēmus : an oar; the wings of a bird To rēmex : rower, oarsman

ren– {kidney}: adrenal gland, adrenalin, renal, reniform, renin || From L rēnes : the kidneys

rend– {to give, to give back, to give in return}: render, rendevous, rendition, surrender rent, rental comb. of re–1 + dition– || From ME rendren From OFr rendre : to give back From VL rendere for L reddere : to give back, to restore From re– : again, anew, back + dare : to give

rept–1 {to crawl, to creep}: reptant, reptile, reptilian || From LL reptilis : creeping From L rēpere (pp. reptum) : to creep, to crawl To freq. reptare : to creep, to crawl

rept–2 {to seize, to take}: subreption, surreptitious see also rap–, rav– || From –ripere (in comb.) (pp. –reptum) From rapere : to seize, to grasp

ret– {net}: rete, retiary, reticle, reticular, reticulated, reticule, reticulum, retiform, retina || From L rēte : net To rētiārius : gladiator with a net; rēticulātus : netlike, reticulated

retr(o)– {backward}: retral, retroactive, retrofit, retrograde, retrogress, retrorocket, retrorse, retrospect, retroversion, retrovirus extension of re–1 || From L retro : backward, back, behind From re– : back, again, anew

rever– {fear, awe, respect}: irreverent, revere, reverend, reverent unrelated: reverie || From L reverēri : to feel awe or respect, to revere, to fear To reverens (gen. reverentis) : respectful, reverent; ger. reverendus : feeling awe or respect

rhabdo– {rod}: rhabdocoele, rhabdomancy, rhabdomyoma, Rhabdophis, rhabdovirus || From Gr rhabdos : rod

rhap– {to stitch, to sew}: rhapsody, staphylorrhaphy, tenorrhaphy || From Gr rhaphē : a sewing, suture, seam From rhaptein : to sew, to stitch together

rhen– {the Rhine river}: Rhenish, rhenium Rhine river (Ger. sp. Rhein), rhinestone || From L Rhenus : the Rhine

rheo– {a flow, current, river}: rheology, rheometer, rheophile, rheostat Span. rio more at rrhea– see also rheum– || From Gr rheos : current From rheein : to flow

rhetor– {speech}: rhetor, rhetoric, rhetorical, rhetorician || From L rhetorica From Gr rhētorikē : rhetorical From rhētōr : orator From eirein : to speak From IE *wrē–, var. of *wer– : to speak, to say

rheum– {a flow}: rheum, rheumatic, rheumatism, rheumatoid, rheumy see also rheo– || From Gr rheuma : a flow, moist discharge; akin to rheein : to flow

rhin–, rrhin– {nose}: antirrhinum, catarrhine, platyrrhine, rhinitis, rhinoceros, rhinoplasty, rhinorrhea, rhinoscopy, rhinovirus unrelated: Rhine || From Gr rhinos, gen. of rhis : nose

rhizo– {root}: rhizobium, rhizocarpous, rhizogenic, rhizoid, rhizome, rhizophagous, rhizosphere, rhizotomy || From Gr rhiza : root

rhod– {red, rose-red, rosy}: Rhoda, rhodium, rhododendron, rhodolite, rhodora see also ros–2 || From Gr rhodon : rose

rhomb– {rhombus}: orthorhombic, rhombencephalon, rhombic, rhombohedron, rhomboid, rhomboideus, rhombus || From Gr rhombos : an object that can be turned; akin to rhembein : to turn, to whirl

rhynch– {snout}: Auchenorrhyncha, Menorhyncha, Ornithorhynchus, Oxyrrhyncha, Prosorrhyncha, rhynchocephalian, rhyncholite, rhynchophore, Rhynchosia, rhynchotous, Sternorrhyncha || From Gr rhynchos : snout

rhyt– {wrinkles}: rhytidectomy, rhytidoplasty || From Gr rhytis (gen. rhtyid) : wrinkle

ribo– {a type of sugar}: deoxyribonucleic acid, riboflavin, ribonucleic acid, ribose, ribosome || From arbitrary back-formation from arabinose From Arab + –ose : carbohydrate From glucose

ric– {power, to rule, realm}: bishopric, Dietrich, Eric, Frederick, Heinrich (Henry), rich, Richard, Roderick Ger. Reich || From Gmc rik– : king; akin to Ger reich, Du rijk

rid– {to laugh}: deride, ridicule, ridiculous same as ris– || From L rīdēre (pp. rīsum) : to laugh To rīdiculus : causing laughter, humorous, funny, absurd, ridiculous

rig–1 {to make right, to direct}: corrigenda, corrigible, dirigible, incorrigible dirge same as rect– see also right– || From L –rigere (in comb.) (pp. –rectum) From regere: to put in order, to rule, to lead straight, to guide From IE *reg– : straight, to lead straight, to lead, to put in order

rig–2 {stiff}: rigid, rigor, rigor mortis, rigorous || From L rigēre : to be stiff, to stiffen To rigidus : stiff, rigid, hard; rigor : stiffness, rigidity, stiffness or numbness caused by cold

right– {right, correct, good}: forthright, outright, right, righteous, rightful see also rig–1 || From OE riht : straight, direct; akin to Ger recht : right From IE *reg– : straight, to lead straight, to lead, to put in order

ris– {to laugh}: derision, derisive, risible same as rid– || From L rīsum, pp. of rīdēre : to laugh To rīsus : laughter

rit– {ceremony}: rite, ritual, ritualistic || From L rītus : religious custom, ceremony To ritualis : of a rite

riv–1 {river, bank, shore}: arrival, arrive, derivative, derive, rival, rivalry, river, riverine, Riviera, rivulet riparian || From ME rivere From OFr riviere From VL riparia From L rīpa : bank of a river; also From L rīvus : a stream To rīvālus : one who uses the water of a stream in common with another •arrive and derive From L rīpa : shore From IE *reipa– : cut out by the river From *rei– : to tear, to cut

riv–2 {to tear}: rive, riven rift || rive, riven From ME riven From ON rīfa : to tear From IE *rei– : to tear, to cut To Gmc *rifti– To Dan rift : breach, rift

ro– {fame}: Robert, robin, Robin, Robyn, Roderick, Roger, Roland, Rolf Rudolph, Rupert || From OFr From OHG hruod– : fame, praise

rob– {oak tree; hence: strong}: corroborate, Paso Robles, roble, roborant, robust || From L roborare : to strengthen & robustus : oaken, hard, strong From robur : a hard variety of oak; earlier robus

rod– {to gnaw}: corrode, erode, rodent same as ros–1 || From L rōdere (pp. rōsum) : to gnaw, to nibble at

rog– {to ask, to propose, to entreat, to request}: abrogate, arrogant, arrogate, derogate, derogatory, interrogate, interrogative, prerogative, prorogue, rogations, subrogate, supererogate, surrogate || From L rogare : to ask, to inquire, to question To freq. rogito : to ask repeatedly or eagerly; rogātio : an asking, in inquiry; rogātor : one who asks

rol– {roll}: control, role, Rolodex™, roly-poly same as roll–, roul– || From L rotula, dim of rota : wheel

roll– {wheel, to roll}: enroll, roll, rollaway, rollback, roller, rollway, rollout, rollover, rollmops same as rol–, roul– || From ME rollen From OFr roller : to roll From VL rotulare From L rotula, dim. of rota : wheel

roman– {Rome, the Romans}: roman à clef, Romance, romance, Romania, Romansch, romantic romaine || From OFr romanz From L Rōma : Rome To Rōmānus : Roman From Rōmulus : (Roman mythology) son of Mars, founder and first king of Rome

rorse– {turned [in the given direction]}: antrorse, dextrorse, extrorse, introrse, retrorse, sinistrorse see also Appendix B || From L contr. (in comb.) of –versus : turning, turned; e.g. sinistrorse From sinistroversus : turned to the left

ros–1 {to gnaw}: corrosion, corrosive, erose, erosion same as rod– see also rostr– || From L rōsum, pp. of rōdere : to gnaw, to nibble at

ros–2 {rose, pink, red}: Barbarossa, rosarian, rosary, rose, roseate, rosette, Rosicrucian, rosy, Testarossa, vin rosé unrelated: rosemary see also rhod– || From L rosa : rose To rosārius : made of roses; rosārium : rose garden

rostell– see rostr–

rostr–, rostell– {beak, beaklike part, prow of a ship}: fissirostral, rostellate, rostellum, rostrate, rostrum unrelated: roster basic form: rostr– diminutive form: rostell– see also ros–1 || From L rostrum : that which gnaws, the beak, the snout To rostrātus : having a beak, beaked, curved To dim. rostellum : little beak

rot– {wheel, to roll, round}: orotund, rota, Rotarian, rotary, rotate, rote (learning), rotifer, rotogravure, rotor, rotund, rotunda || From L rota : wheel To rotare : to turn like a wheel; rotula : little wheel; rotundus : round, circular

roul– {to roll}: roulade, rouleau, roulette same as rol–, roll– || From Fr rouler : to roll From L rotula : dim of rota : wheel

round– {round}: around, round, roundabout, roundel, roundelay, rounder, Roundhead, roundhouse, roundup, roundworm || From ME round From OFr roont From L rotundus : round, circular From rotare : to turn like a wheel, to spin

rous– {to stir up, to cause to rise}: arouse, rouse, roust, roustabout || From ME rowsen : to rouse, to roust From

rout–1 {to beat, beaten path}: rout (retreat), route, routine unrelated: rout (to dig) || From OFr route, rout From L rupta (via) : beaten path From ruptum, pp. of rumpere : to break

rout–2 {to dig, to root}: rout (to dig), router root (to dig) || From ME wroten From OE wrotan : to root up From wrot : snout

roy– {king}: Roy, royal, royalty, viceroy see also reg– || From ME roial From OFr roi : king From L regalis : regal From regere : to rule From rex : king

rrhag– {to burst forth}: hemorrhage, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia || From ModL From Gr rhēgnynai : to burst, to break

rrhaph– see rhap–

rrhea– {flow}: amenorrhea, diarrhea, dysmenorrhea, gonorrhea, logorrhea, pyorrhea, rhinorrhea, seborrhea, sialorrhea, steatorrhea catarrh, hemorrhoid part of rheo– || From ModL From Gr –rrhoia (in comb.) From rheein : to flow

rrhin– see rhin–

rub– {red}: bilirubin, erubescence, rubefacient, rubella, rubeola, rubescent, rubicund, rubidium, rubric, ruby see also ruf– || From L rubeus : reddish & rubere : to redden From ruber : red

rud– {rough, raw}: erudite, rude, ruderal, rudiment || From OFr From L rudis : rough, raw, unwrought, uncultivated To rudīmentum : the first trial or beginning, an attempt

ruf– {red, brownish red}: rufescent, rufous, Rufus see also rub– || From L rufus : reddish

rug– {fold, crease, wrinkle}: corruguate, ruga, rugose || From L rūga : wrinkle in the face To rūgōsus : wrinkled

rumin– {throat, stomach}: ruminant, ruminate rumen || From L rūminare : to chew the cud, to ruminate To rūminātio : chewing the cud From rumen : the throat

run– {to run, to go}: forerunner, outrun, overrun, rerun, rum-runner, run, runabout, runaround, runaway, rundown, run-in, runner, runoff, run-on, runout, run-through, runway, underrun || From ME rinnen, rennen From ON & OE; of Gmc origin

rup– {rock}: rupestrine, rupicolous || From L rūpes : rock From ruptus, pp. of rumpere : to break

rupt– {to break, to burst}: abrupt, bankrupt, corrupt, disrupt, erupt, interrupt, irrupt, rupture erumpent || From L ruptura From ruptus, pp. of rumpere : to break

rust– {the country [rural area], countryside}: rustic, rusticate, rusticity rural || From L rusticānus : of the country, rustic From rūs (gen. rūris) : the country (as opposed to the town), lands, farm, estate To rusticātio : living in the country

Unattested, hypothesized
† Unknown origin

88 entries found.

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