The Cognātarium

sac– {bag, sack}: cul-de-sac, sac, sacculate, saccule, sachet, sack (bag), sack (to plunder), sackcloth satchel || From L saccus From Gr sakkos : sack From Sem

sacchar– {sugar}: monosaccharide, polysaccharide, saccharase, saccharic, saccharide, saccharify, saccharimeter, saccharin, saccharine || From L saccharum : sugar From Gr sakcharon From Sans śarkarā : pebble, sugar

sacr– {sacred}: sacerdotal, sacrament, Sacramento, sacred, sacrifice, sacrilege, sacrilegious, sacristy, sacroiliac, sacrosanct, sacrum sexton (from sacristan) same as secr– see also sanct– || From L sacrare : to consecrate, to make holy, to make inviolable From sacer (gen. sacrum) : sacred, holy, consecrated

sag– {keen perception, knowledge}: presage, sagacious, sagacity unrelated: sage (wise man) || From L sāgire : to perceive quickly, to feel keenly From sagax (gen. sagācis) : keen, acute, having keen senses, mentally acute, shrewd

sagitt– {arrow}: Sagitta, sagittal, Sagittaridae, Sagittarius, sagittate || From L sagitta : arrow

sal–1 {to leap}: salacious, salient, salientian, sally (to go forth) assail same as sault–, sil–1, sult– || From L salīre (pp. saltum) : to leap, to spring To saltus : a leap, a spring; freq. saltare : to dance, to leap about From IE *sel– : to jump

sal–2 {salt}: salad, salami, sal ammoniac, salary, saliferous, salimeter, salina, Salina (Kansas), salinas, Salinas (California), saline, salsa, salt, saltern, saltine, saltpeter see also hal–2, sauc– || From L sāl : salt, brine, seawater To salīnus : salty; salārius : salt allowance, money given to soldiers for salt From IE *sal– : salt

sal–3 {room, hall}: salon, saloon Ger. Saal || From Fr salon From It salone From sala : a room, a hall From Gmc root

salic– {willow}: acetylsalicylic, salicin, salicylic || From L salīcis, gen. of salix : willow. Salicin is obtained from the bark of willows and poplars.

salom– {peace [in names of Hebraic origin]}: Absalom, Salome Solomon Heb. shalom || From Gr From Heb shalom : peace

salt– {to leap, to spring}: saltant, saltarello, saltation, saltigrade same as sal–1, sault–, sil–1, sult– || From L saltum (pp. of salīre) : to leap, to spring To saltus : a leap, a spring; freq. saltare : to dance, to leap about From IE *sel– : to jump

salu– {good health}: salubrious, salutary, salutation, salutatorian, salute Sp. salud see also salv– || From L salus (gen salūtis) : health, soundness, well-being From salvus : safe, well, sound To salvēre : to to be well, to be in good health; salūbris : healthful, salubrious; salūtare : to wish well, to greet

salv– {safe, unharmed}: El Salvador, salvage, salvation, salver, salvo, salvor save, savior see also salu– || From L salvus : safe, well, sound To salvēre : to to be well, to be in good health From L salus (gen salūtis) : health, soundness, well-being

sample– {to buy, to obtain, to take}: example, sample see also em– || From OFr example, From L exemplium : sample, example From eximere : to take out From ex– : out + emere (pp. emptum) : to buy

san– {healthy}: cordon sanitaire, insane, mens sana in corpore sano, sanative, sane, sanitarium, sanitary, sanitation, sanitize, sanity || From L sānus : healthy, sound To sānitās : health, soundness

sanct– {sacred, holy}: inner sanctum, sacrosanct, sanctify, sanctimonious, sanction, sanctity, sanctuary, sanctum sanctorum saint, Santa see also sacr– || From L sanctus : holy, consecrated To sancire (pp. sanctum) : to consecrate, to hallow To sanctio (gen sanctiōnis) : the article or clause in a law that defines the penalty or gives the law its force

sang– {blood}: consanguineous, exsanguinate, sang-froid, Sangre de Cristo, sangria, sanguinary, sanguine, sanguineous Sp. sangre || From L †sanguis (gen. sanguinis) : blood

sap– {taste, discrimination, wisdom}: Homo Sapiens, sap (fluid), sapid, sapient, sapor insipid, sage (elderly wise man) Sp. sabroso see also sav– || From L sapere : to have a taste or flavor To part. sapiens : having taste To sapienta : taste, discrimination, wisdom, good sense; sapor : taste

sapon– {soap}: saponaceous, saponated, saponify, saponite || From L sāpōnis, gen. of sāpo : soap From Celt

sapr– {putrefaction, decay}: sapremia, saprobic, saprogenic, saprolite, saprophagous, saprophyte, saprozoic || From Gr sapros : rotten

sarc– {flesh}: anasarca, ectosarc, sarcasm, sarcoid, sarcoma, sarcophagus || From Gr sarx (comb. form sarko–) : flesh

sartor– {tailor}: sartor, sartorial, sartorius || From L sartum, pp. of sarcire : to mend, to patch to repair To LL sartor : tailor

sat– {to fill up}: satiate, satiety, satire, satisfactory, satisfy, saturate asset || From L satis : enough, sufficient To satiare : to satisfy, to fill; satur : full, sated To saturare : to satisfy, to fill

saturn– {the god Saturn}: Saturn, saturnalia, saturniid, saturnine Saturday || From L Sāturnus : Saturn, the Roman god of agriculture

sauc– {sauce}: sauce, saucepan, saucer, saucy sausage from salsa, part of sal–2 || From ME From OFr sause, saulse From L salsa, pl. of salsum : salted food, salty From salīre : to salt From sāl : salt, brine, seawater From IE *sal– : salt

sauer– {sour}: sauerbraten, sauerkraut || From Ger sauer : sour To Saüre : acid

sault– {to leap}: assault, Sault St. Marie, somersault sauté same as sal–1, salt–, sil–1, sult– || From OFr From L salīre (pp. saltum) : to leap, to spring To saltus : a leap, a spring From IE *sel– : to jump

saur– {lizard}: dinosaur, megalosaur, pterosaur, saurian, saurischian, stegosaur, Tyrannosaurus Rex || From Gr sauros : lizard

sav– {taste, discrimination, wisdom}: savant, savoir-faire, savor, savory, savvy see also sap– || From OFr savoir : to know, to have wisdom From L sapere : to have taste, to discern, to be wise

sax– {rock}: saxatile, saxicolous, saxifrage unrelated: saxophone || From L saxum : rock, large stone To saxifragus : stonebreaking

say– {to weigh, to try}: assay, essay || From Anglo-Fr assai From OFr essai : trial From essayer From VL exagiare From LL exagium : a weight, weighing From ex– : out + agere : to do, to drive

scal– {ladder, stairs, steps, to climb}: escalade, escalate, scalar, scale (to climb), scale (units of measurement) unrelated: scale (weighing device), scales (fish skin) || From LL scala From L scālae : flight of stairs, staircase, ladder From scandere : to climb

scan–, scans–, scant– {scale, to scale, to climb}: scan, scandent, scansion, scansorial, scantling same as scend– || From L scandere (pp. scansum) : to climb, to mount, to rise

scans– see scan–

scant– see scan–

scap– {to break loose, to escape}: escapade, escape, escapement, escapism, scapegoat, scapegrace unrelated: landscape || From ME escapen From NormFr escaper From eschaper From VL excappare From L ex– : out of + cappa : cloak; literally, to get out of one’s cloak and leave it behind; to get away

scaph– {boat, ship}: bathyscaph, scaphoid, scaphopod || From Gr skaphos : boat, hollow shell

scat– {excrement, filth}: scat (animal droppings), scatology, scatophagous || From Gr skatos, gen. of skōr : excrement

scath– {to injure}: scathe, scathing, unscathed Ger. schaden || From ME scathen From ON skatha : to injure From skathi : harm

scel– see skel–

scen– {stage, scene}: mise en scène, proscenium, scena, scenario, scene, scenery, scenic unrelated: obscene || From L scena, scaena : the boards of the theater, the stage, the scene From Gr skēnē : covered place, tent, stage

scend– {to climb}: ascend, condescend, descend, transcend, transcendental same as scan– || From L –scendere (comb. form) (pp. –scensum) From scandere (pp. scansum) : to climb

scept–, sceps– (British spelling) see skept–

schem– {scheme}: schema, schematic, schematism, scheme || From L schema : shape, figure, form, fashion From Gr schēma (gen schēmatos) : form, appearance, plan

schis– {to split}: schism, schist, schistosome, schistosomiasis same as schiz– || From Gr schizein : to cleave, to cut To schistos : cleft

schiz– {to split}: schizocarp, schizogenesis, schizogony, schizoid, Schizomida, schizophrenia, schizopod same as schis– || From Gr schizein : to cleave, to cut To schistos : cleft

schol– {school}: scholar, scholastic, scholiast, scholium school unrelated: school (of fish) || From L schola : learned leisure, learned conversation, debate, a place where learned discussions are held, a school From Gr scholē : leisure, that in which leisure is employed, discussion, philosophy, school

sci– {to know, knowledge}: adscititious, conscience, conscientious, conscious, nescience, omniscient, plebiscite, prescient, science, sciolist, subconscious, unconscionable || From L scire (pp. scitum) : to know, to understand, to have knowledge To part. sciens (gen. scientis) : knowing, understanding, aware From IE *skei– : to cut, to split (“to separate one thing from another, to discern”)

scind– {to cut, to divide}: exscind, prescind, rescind same as sciss– || From L scindere (pp. scissum) : to cut, to tear asunder, to split

scint– {spark, hence: a faint trace}: scintigraphy, scintilla, scintillate, scintillometer, scintiscanner || From L scintilla : spark

sciss– {a cutting, a dividing}: abscissa, abscission, rescission, scissile, scission unrelated: scissors same as scind– || From L scissum, pp. of scindere : to cut, to tear asunder, to split

scler– {hard}: atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, sclera, sclerenchyma, sclerite, scleritis, scleroma, sclerosis, sclerotomy, sclerous || From Gr sklēros : hard

scop– {view}: episcopal, fluoroscope, horoscope, kaleidoscope, microscope, microscopic, oscilloscope, periscope, scope, scopophilia, stereoscope, telescope || From Gr skopos : a mark, spy, watcher, object of attention, goal, target To skopein : to see

scorb– {scurvy}: antiscorbutic, ascorbic acid, scorbutic scurvy || From ML scorbutus : scurvy From poss. of Germanic origin

scot–1 {darkness}: scotia, scotoma, scotopia || From Gr skotos : darkness To skotoun : to darken

scot–2 {Scotland, the Scots}: Nova Scotia, Scot, Scotch, Scotland, Scott, Scottish schottische || From LL Scoti : a people of northern Britain, prob. From OIr Scuit (pl. form) : the Irish

scot–3 {tax, money assessed or paid}: scot and lot, scot-free || From ON skot : tribute, tax

scrib– {to write}: ascribe, circumscribe, describe, inscribe, prescribe, proscribe, scribble, scribe, subscribe, transcribe same as script– || From L scrībere (pp. scriptum) : to engrave with a sharp-pointed instrument, to incise, to write To scrība : scribe; scriptio : a writing, the act of writing; scriptura : a piece of writing, a composition

script– {written}: adscript, conscript, description, inscription, manuscript, postscript, prescription, script, scripture, subscript, subscription, superscript, superscription, transcript escritoire, scrip same as scrib– || From L scriptum, pp. of scrībere : to engrave with a sharp-pointed instrument, to incise, to write To scrība : scribe; scriptio : a writing, the act of writing; scriptura : a piece of writing, a composition

scrof– {of or like a hog}: scrofula, scrofulous, Sus scrofa (hog species) || From L scrōfa : breeding sow

scrut– {to examine}: inscrutable, scrutinize, scrutiny || From L scrūtari : to examine carefully, to search through To scrūtātor : one who searches, investigator

scur– {dark}: chiaroscuro, obscure || From L obscūrus : covered, dark, obscure

scut– {shield}: escutcheon, scutage, scutate, scute, scutellate, scutiform, scutum || From L scūtum : shield

se– {apart, away, by oneself, self, itself}: felo de se, per se, secede, seclude, secret, secretary, secrete, secure, sedition, seduce, sedulous, segregrate, select, separate, sever, several same as sui– || From L (gen. suī) : himself, herself, itself, themselves

seb– {fat}: sebaceous, sebiferous, seborrhea, sebum || From L sēbum : tallow, suet, fat, grease

secr– {sacred}: consecrate, desecrate, execrate, obsecrate same as sacr– || From L –secrare (comb. form) From sacrare : to consecrate, to make holy, to make inviolable From sacer (gen. sacrum) : sacred, holy, consecrated

sect– {to cut}: bisect, dissect, insect, intersect, prosector, section, sector, transect, vivisection secant, segment unrelated: sect || From L sectum, pp. of secare : to cut, to cut out To sectio (gen. sectiōnis) : a cutting

secu– {to follow, to pursue, to ensue}: consecutive, execute, executive, persecute, prosecute, secund, secundines second, secondary, sect, sectarian Sp. segundo same as sequ–, sue–, suit– || From L secūtus, pp of sequi : to follow, to accompany, to ensue

sed– {to sit, to settle}: sedan, sedate, sedative, sedentary, sedilia, sediment, supersede séance same as sess–, sid– see also siz– || From L sedēre (pp. sessum) : to sit, to be settled To sēdare : to settle, to soothe, to allay To sēdātio : an allaying, a soothing; sēdātus : having sat, settled From IE *sed– : to sit

segu– see sequ–

seism– {earthquake}: microseism, seismic, seismograph, seismology, seismometer || From Gr seismos : earthquake From seiein : to shake

selen– {the Earth’s moon}: Selene, selenic, selenite, selenium, selenodesy, selenography, selenology || From Gr selēnē : the Earth’s moon From selas : light, brightness

sem(a)– {sign, symbol}: aposematic, semantic, semaphore, semasiology, sematic, sememe, semiology, semiotics || From Gr sēma : sign, symbol

sembl– {same [appearance, time, place]}: assemble, assembly, dissemble, ensemble, resemble, semblance part of sim– || From OFr –sembler (comb. form) From VL From L simulare : to make alike, to simulate From simul : at the same time, together From similis : like, resembling, similar, of the same kind

semi– {half, partially, not completely, twice per [the given period]}: semiannual, semicircle, semicolon, semiconductor, semiconscious, semifinal, semiformal, semilunar, semimonthly, semipalmate, semiprecious, semiprivate, semiprofessional, semiquaver, semiskilled, semisweet, semitrailer see also hemi– compare tot– || From L sēmi– : half From sēmis : the half (of anything)

semin– {seed, to plant a seed, to sow}: disseminate, inseminate, seminal, seminar, seminary, seminiferous semen || From L sēminis, gen. of sēmen : that is sown or planted, seed

sempr– {always}: semper fidelis, semper paratus, sic semper tyrannis, sempervivus, sempre sempiternal || From L semper : always, at all times

sen– {old}: senate, senectitude, senescent, senile, senior, senopia Span. señor Port. senhor Ital. signore Fr. seigneur compare juven– See also Appendix C || From L senex (gen. senis, compar. senior) : aged, old, an old person To senectus : old age; senescere : to grow old; senātus : a council of elders, the Senate

sens– {feeling, perception}: consensus, desensitize, dissension, extrasensory, nonsense, sensate, sensation, sense, senseless, sensibility, sensible, sensitive, sensitivity, sensitize, sensor, sensory, sensual, sensuous same as sent–2 || From L sensus : sensation, feeling, by the senses, perception, judgment, understanding From sensum, pp. of sentire : to feel, to experience, to perceive, to realize To sensibilis : that can be perceived by the senses From IE *sent– : to go, to head for, to find out

sent–1 see ent–

sent–2 {feeling, perception}: assent, consent, dissent, presentiment, resent, sentence, sententious, sentient, sentiment, sentinel scent same as sens– || From L sentire (pp. sensum) : to feel, to experience, to perceive, to realize To sensus : sensation, feeling, by the senses, perception, judgment, understanding From IE *sent– : to go, to head for, to find out

sepsis–, septic– {to rot}: antiseptic, sepsis, septic, septicemia || From Gr sēpsis : putrefaction & sēptikos : putrid, rotten From sēpein : to make putrid, to rot

sept–1 {seven}: September, septenary, septennial, septet, septillion, septuagenarian, Septuagint, septuple see also hept– || From L septem : seven From IE *septm– : seven

sept–2 {enclosure, partition}: septate, septicidal, septifragal, septum, transept || From L saeptum : barrier, wall, enclosure From saepire (pp. saeptum) : to surround with a hedge, to hedge in, to enclose From saepes : hedge, fence

septic– see sepsis–

sequ–, segu– {to follow}: consequence, consequently, non sequitur, obsequious, segue, seguidilla, sequel, sequence, sequential, sequester, subsequent same as secu–, sue–, suit– || From L sequi (pp. secūtus) : to follow, to accompany, to ensue

seren– {clear, undisturbed}: serenade, serene, serenity unrelated: serendipity || From L serēnus : clear, bright, fair, serene

seri– {to arrange, to join}: series, serial, seriate, seriatim unrelated: serious same as sert– || From L serere (pp. sertum) : to join together, to put in a row, to connect To seriēs : row, succession, chain, series

seri(c)– {silk}: sericeous, sericin, sericulture, serigraph, serine serge || From L sericum : silk From Seres : a people of east Asia known for silk (the Chinese)

sero– {serum}: serology, seronegative, seropurulent, serosa, serotonin, serotype, serous || From L serum : the watery part of curdled milk, whey; the watery part or serum of anything

serp– {to creep, serpent}: reserpine, serpent, serpentine, serpigo see also herp– || From L serpens (gen. serpentis) : snake, creeping animal From serpēre (pp. serptum) : to creep

serr– {sawtooth}: serranid, serrated, serration, serrulate sierra || From L serra : a saw To serrātus : saw-toothed, serrate

sert– {to arrange, to join, to bind}: assert, assertive, desert (to abandon), desert (wasteland), desertion, dissertation, exert, exsert, insert unrelated: deserts (things deserved), dessert same as seri– || From L serere (pp. sertum) : to join together, to put in a row, to connect To seriēs : row, succession, chain, series

serv–1 {to save, to preserve}: conservative, conserve, observe, preserve, reservation, reserve, reservoir || From L servare : to watch over, to keep, to observe, to retain, to stay in a place

serv–2 {to serve}: deserve, disservice, serve, servant, service, serviette, servile, servitude, servo, subservient deserts (things deserved), dessert, serf, sergeant || From L servire : to be subject to, to be a servant From servus : slave To servīlis : slavish, servile; servitium : slavery, servitude

sesqui– {one-and-a-half}: sesquicentennial, sesquipedal, sesquipedalian || From L sesqui : one half more, half as much again From semis : the half + suffix –que : and, also

sess– {to sit}: assess, obsess, possess, sessile, session surcease same as sed–, sid– see also siz– || From L sessum, pp. of sedēre : to sit To sessio (gen. sessiōnis) : a sitting, the act of sitting From IE *sed– : to sit

sest– {six}: sestet, sestina siesta unrelated: palimpsest see also sex–2 || From It sesto : sixth From L sextus : sixth From sex : six From IE *seks–, *sweks– : six

set–1 {to put, to place}: beset, handset, inset, offset, onset, outset, preset, reset, set, setback, setoff, setscrew, settee, setter, settle, setup, subset, upset unrelated: asset || From ME setten From OE settan From Gmc root satjan

set–2 {bristle}: equisetum, seta, setaceous, setiform, setose see also chaet– || From L seta From saeta : a stiff hair, a bristle From

sever–1 {serious, grave}: asseverate, perseveration, persevere, severe || From L sevērus : grave, serious, strict, rigid, stern, severe

sever–2 {to separate}: sever, several, severance see also par–4 compare join– || From ME severen From OFr sevrer, severer From VL seperare From L sēparare : to separate From sē– : apart + parare : to prepare

sex–1 {sex, gender}: asexual, bisexual, heterosexual, homosexual, parasexual, sex, sexist, sexology, transsexual, unisex unrelated: sexton || From L sexus : sex From ? secare : to cut

sex–2 {six}: sexagenarian, sexagesimal, sexennial, sexpartite, sext, sextant, sextet, sextillion, sextuple semester see also sest– unrelated: sexton || From L sex : six From IE *seks–, *sweks– : six

sex–3 {the Saxons}: Essex, Middlesex, Sussex, Wessex unrelated: sexton || From OE Seaxan : Saxon

sher– {shire}: sheriff, Sherlock, Sherman, Sherwin, Sherwood Forest same as shir– || From OE scire : shire

shir– {shire}: shire, Shirley same as sher– || From OE scire : shire

sial– {saliva}: sialagogue, sialodochoplasty, sialoid, sialolith, sialorrhea || From Gr sialon : saliva

sibil– {to hiss}: assibilate, sibilant, sibilate || From L sībilus : a hissing, a whistling To sībilare : to hiss, to whistle

sic– {essential nature of a thing}: extrinsic, intrinsic || From L intrinsecus : inward, within & extrinsecus : outward, without From secus : following, otherwise (akin to sequi (pp. secūtus) : to follow) From IE *sekw– : to follow

sicc– {to dry out}: desiccant, desiccate, exsiccate, siccative sack (dry white wine), sec (dry, as wine) || From L siccus : dry To siccare : to dry out, to desiccate

sid– {to sit}: assiduous, dissident, insidious, preside, president, reside, residence, residential, residual, residue, subside, subsidiary, subsidize, subsidy same as sed–, sess– see also siz– || From L –sidēre (comb. form) (pp. –sessum) From sedēre : to sit From IE *sed– : to sit

sider– {star}: consider, desiderate, desideratum, sidereal desire || From L sīdus (gen. sīderis) : star •desire From desiderate From L dēsīderare : to wish for (“to wish upon a star”)?

sign– {distinctive mark, seal, signal}: assign, assignation, consign, countersign, design, designate, ensign, insignia, resign, sign, signal, signatory, signature, signet, significant, signify || From L signum : sign, mark, token, banner, ensign To signare : to put a mark on, to inscribe, to impress, to indicate To significare : to give a sign, to indicate

sil–1 {to leap}: dissilient, resilient same as sal–1, salt–, sault–, sult– || From L –silīre (comb. form) (pp. –sultum) From salīre (pp. saltum) : to leap, to spring To saltus : a leap, a spring From IE *sel– : to jump

sil–2 {granary}: ensilage, ensile, silage, silo || From Fr From Sp From L sirus From Gr siros : an underground granary, a pit

sim– see sembl–, simil–, simpl–, simul–

simi– {ape}: prosimian, simian || From L sīmia : ape From sīmus : flat-nosed

simil– {same [kind, appearance], alike}: assimilate, dissimilar, dissimilate, facsimile, Similac™, similar, simile, similitude, verisimilitude part of sim– || From L similis : like, resembling, similar

simpl– {of the same kind, one}: simple, simpleton, simplex, simplify, simplistic single, singular part of sim– || From L simplus : simple, single

simul– {same [kind, appearance, time]}: simulacrum, simulate, simulcast, simultaneous part of sim– || From L simul : at the same time, at once, together

sin– {bend, curve}: cosine, homolosine, insinuate, sine, sinuous, sinus, sinusoid || From L sinus : a bending, curve, fold, a hanging fold of a toga

sine– {without}: sinecure, sine qua non || From L sine : without

sinistr– {left [side]}: sinister, sinistral, sinistrorse compare dextr– || From L sinister : left, on the left hand; wrong, unfavorable

sino– {China, Chinese}: Sino–, Sino-Japanese, Sinologist, Sinophile, Sino-Tibetan || From L Sinae From Gr Sinai From Ar Sin : the Chinese people

siph– {tube, pipe, siphon}: siphon, Siphonoptera, siphonostele, siphonophore, siphuncle || From L sīpho (gen. sīphōnis) : siphon From Gr siphōn : tube, siphon

sir– {gentleman, lord}: sir, sire surly Fr. Monsieur compare dam–2 || From OFr sire : master From L senior : elder, compar. of senex : old, aged

sist– {to stand, to cause to stand}: assist, consist, consistent, consistency, consistory, desist, exist, existentialism, insist, persist, resist, subsist, transistor see also sta– || From L sistere (pp. statum) : to cause to stand, to set, to place, to place oneself, to stand, to stand firm; redup. of stāre (pp. statum) : to stand

sit– {food, grain}: parasite, sitology, sitosterol || From Gr sitos : food, grain

situ– {position}: in situ, situate, situation, situs site || From L situs : layout, site, position, situation From situm, pp. of sinere : to place, to put down, to set down To ML situāre : to place

siz– {assessment}: assize, size, sizing excise (tax) see also sed–, sess–, sid– size is aphetic for assize || From OFr assise : court session From asseoir From L assidere : to sit in a court session From L –sidēre (comb. form) (pp. –sessum) From sedēre : to sit From IE *sed– : to sit

skel–, scel– {leg}: isosceles, triscele, triskelion unrelated: skeleton || From Gr skelos : leg

skept–, skeps– {thoughtful, inquiring, to consider}: omphaloskepsis, skeptic, skepticism || From Gr skeptikos : thoughtful, inquiring From skeptesthai : to consider

skia– {shadow}: skiagraph, skiascope || From Gr skia : shadow

soci– {ally, companion, association}: antisocial, associate, association, dissociate, phytosociology, sociable, social, socialism, society, sociology, sociopath || From L socius : (adj.) sharing, accompanying, common, (n.) partner, companion, associate To sociālis : pertaining to partners or allies; societās : partnership, fellowship, association; sociare : to combine, to associate

sod– {soda ash}: soda, sodium || From ML, It, or Sp From Ar suwayd : burnt plant (from which soda was produced)

sol–1 {alone}: desolate, sole, soliloquy, solipsism, solitaire, solitary, solitude, solo unrelated: isolate || From L sōlus : alone, only, sole

sol–2 {to comfort}: consolation, console (all senses), disconsolate, solace || From L sōlari : to comfort, to console To sōlācium : consolation, solace

sol–3 {the sun}: girasol, insolate, parasol, Sol, solar, solarium, solstice || From L sōl : the sun To sōlārium : a sundial, a place in the Forum where a sundial stood, a balcony or terrace in the sunlight; solstitium : solstice

sol–4 {to become accustomed, customary, usual}: obsolete, obsolescent, insolent || From L solēre : to be accustomed To obsolescere (pp. obsolētus) : to go out of use, to wear out

sol–5 {bottom, base, foundation, sole of the foot}: entresol, sole (of the foot), sole (fish), soleplate, solifluction, solum soil (earth) || From L solum : the bottom or lowest part of anything: soil, ground, earth To solea : a leather sole strapped on the foot: a sandal •sole (fish) prob. so-named for its shape

solen– {channel, tube}: solenocyte, solenoglyph, solenoid, solenostele || From Gr sōlēn : tube, channel

solid– {firm, whole}: consolidate, solid, solidarity, solidify, solidus || From L solidus, soldus : dense, firm, solid; whole, complete, entire To solidare : to make solid or firm

solut– {to loosen, to untie}: absolute, absolution, dissolute, dissolution, resolute, resolution, solution soluble same as solv– || From L solūtum, pp. of solvere : to loosen, to untie, to release ( From se : apart + luere : to loosen, to release) To part. solūtus : loosened, unbound, free; solūtio (gen. solūtiōnis) : a loosening, a solution, an explanation

solv– {to loosen, to untie}: absolve, dissolve, insolvent, resolve, solve, solvent same as solut– || From L solvere (pp. solūtum): to loosen, to untie, to release ( From se : apart + luere : to loosen, to release) To part. solūtus : loosened, unbound, free; solūtio (gen. solūtiōnis) : a loosening, a solution, an explanation

som– {body}: chromosome, prosoma, schistosome, soma, trypanosome same as somat– || From Gr sōma (gen. sōmatos) : the body, as distinguished from the soul

somat– {body}: psychosomatic, somatic, somatology, somatoplasm, somatostatin, somatotrophin, somatotype same as som– || From Gr sōmatos, gen. of sōma : the body, as distinguished from the soul

somn– {sleep}: insomnia, parasomnia, somnambulate, somniferous, somniloquy, somnolent Sominex™ || From L somnus : sleep To somniare : to dream

son– {sound}: assonant, consonance, consonant, dissonant, resonate, sonata, sone, sonic, sonnet, sonorous, supersonic, unison same as sound– || From L sōnus : a sound, a noise To sonare : to sound, to resound, to make a noise

sond– {to measure the depth of the sea}: ionosonde, radiosonde, ionosonde, sonde sound (to measure depth) comb. of sub– + ound– || From Fr sonde : From a sounding line From sonder : to sound the depths From VL subundare : to submerge From L sub : under + unda : a wave

sooth– {truth}: forsooth, sooth, soothfast, soothsayer || From ME soth : truth From IE *es– : to be

soph– {wisdom}: philosophy, Sophia, sophist, sophisticated, sophomore, theosophy compare mor–2 || From Gr sophos : clever, skillful, wise To sophistēs : wise man, sophist

sopor– {sleep}: sopor, soporiferous, soporific || From L sopor : deep sleep

sorb–1 {to suck}: absorb, adsorb, resorb || From L sorbēre : to suck in, to drink down, to swallow

sorb–2 {sorb fruit, service tree}: sorb, sorbic acid, sorbitol, sorbose || From L sorbus : service tree To sorbum : fruit of the service tree: serviceberry

soror– {sister}: sororal, sororicide, sorority compare fratr– || From L soror (gen. sorōris) : sister To sorōritās : sisterhood

sort–1 {to go out}: resort, sortie see also sort–2 || From Fr sortir : to go out From poss. VL sortire From L sortitus : chosen, selected by lot From sortis, gen. of sors : lot, casting of lots From serere : to join together, to arrange, to put in a row, to connect

sort–2 {fate, lot, fortune}: assort, consort, consortium, sort, sortilege sorcery see also sort–1 || From L sortis, gen of sors : lot, casting of lots, to share, to part, fate, fortune, destiny

sote– {deliverance, salvation}: creosote, soteriology || From Gr sōtēria : deliverance (in the Bible: salvation) From sōtēr : deliverer (in N.T.: savior) From sōzein : to save, to rescue From sōs, saos : safe and sound From prob. IE *twewos– From *teuə– : to swell, to be strong

souci– {worry, care}: insouciant, sans souci || From Fr soucier : to regard, to care, to trouble

sound– {sound (noise)}: resound, sound unrelated: sound (body of water), sound (healthy), sound (to measure depth) same as son– || From ME soun (with unhistoric –d added in the 16th c.) From OFr son From L sōnus : a sound, a noise To sonare : to sound, to resound, to make a noise

source– {to arise}: resource, source see also surg–, surrect– || From ME sours From OFr sourse From pp. of sourdre : to rise From L surgere (pp. surrectum) : to rise, to get up, to stand up From sub– : under, below + regere : to direct

span– {Spain}: Hispanic, Hispanolia, Spaniard, spaniel, Spanish || From LL Spania, aphetic for L Hispania : the Iberian peninsula

spasm–, spast– {to pull, to jerk}: spasm, spasmodic, spastic || From Gr spastikos From spasmos From span : to draw, to pull, to wrench

spast– see spasm–

spat(h)– {broad blade}: feldspathic, spathaceous, spathe, spatula, spatulate feldspar, spade (card symbol) || From L spatha : flat blade, spatula, broadsword From Gr spathē : broad blade

spati– {space, distance}: expatiate, spatial, spatiotemporal || From L spatium : space, extent, room; a space of time To spatiōsus : ample, wide, spacious

spec– {to look, to see}: special, specie, species, specific, specify, specimen, specious, speculate, speculum same as spect–, spex–, spic–, spite– || From L specere : to look at, to behold, to see To species : a seeing, a view, a sight, shape, form, outward appearance, a kind, a species; specimen : a visible mark, token, example From IE *spek– : to observe

spect– {to look, to see}: aspect, circumspect, expect, inspect, introspective, perspective, prospect, prospector, prospectus, respect, respective, retrospect, spectacle, spectacular, spectator, specter, spectrum, suspect same as spec–, spex–, spic–, spite– || From L spectare : to look at carefully, to observe, to watch From freq. of specere : to look at, to behold, to see From IE *spek– : to observe

spele– {cave}: spelean, speleology, speleothem spelunker || From L spēlaeum : cave, grotto From Gr spēlaion : cave

sper– {favorable, prosperous, hopeful}: desperado, desperate, desperation, Esperanto, prosper, prosperity despair Sp. Esperanza || From L sperare : to look for, to expect, to hope for, to anticipate From spēs : expectation, hope, prospects

sperg– {to sprinkle, to scatter}: Asperges, aspergillosis, aspergillum, aspergillus same as spers– || From L –spergere (comb. form) (pp. –spersum) From spargere (pp. sparsum) : to scatter, to strew, to sprinkle

sperm– {seed}: angiosperm, gymnosperm, sperm, spermaceti, spermary, spermatheca, spermatophyte, spermatozoon, spermicide, spermophile || From Gr sperma : seed, germ From speirein : to sow, to scatter

spers– {to scatter}: asperse, aspersion, aspersorium, disperse, intersperse sparse same as sperg– || From L –spersum, pp. of –spergere (comb. form) From spargere (pp. sparsum) : to scatter, to strew, to sprinkle

spex– {one who sees}: auspex, haruspex, Perspex™ same as spec–, spect–, spic–, spite– || From L –spex : one who sees by divination From specere : to look at, to behold, to see From IE *spek– : to observe

spher– {sphere}: atmosphere, biosphere, exosphere, hemisphere, ionosphere, sphere, spherical, spheroid, spherometer, stratosphere, troposphere || From L sphaera From Gr sphaira : sphere

sphygm– {heartbeat, pulse}: sphygmic, sphygmogram, sphygmograph, sphygmoid, sphygmomanometer see also sphyx– || From Gr sphygmos : the pulse From sphyzein : to throb From

sphyx– {heartbeat, pulse}: asphyxia see also sphygm– || From Gr sphyxis : heartbeat, pulse From sphyzein : to throb From

spic– {to look, to see}: auspice, auspicious, conspicuous, despicable, perspicacious, suspicion despise, espionage, espy, spy more at auspic– same as spec–, spect–, spex–, spite– || From L –spicere (comb. form) (pp. –spectum) From specere : to look at, to behold, to see From IE *spek– : to observe

spin–1 {sharp point, spine}: spinal, spine, spinel, spinescent, spinet, spiniferous, spinifex, spinney, spinose, spinous, spinule, spiny || From L spīna : thorn, thorn bush, prickly bones of animals To spīnōsus : thorny, prickly

spin–2 {to spin}: spin, spindle, spindly, spinner, spinneret, spinoff, spinster || From ME spinnen From OE spinnan From Gmc root spinnan

spir–1 {breath, life, soul}: aspirate, aspire, conspiracy, conspire, dispirited, expire, inspiration, inspire, perspire, respiration, respire, spiracle, spirit, spiritual, spirograph, spirometer, suspire, transpire Fr. esprit || From L spīrare : to breathe, to blow To spīritus : breath, the breath of life, life, divine breath: inspiration, spirit, disposition

spir–2 {coil, spiral}: acrospire, aspirin, leptospirosis, spiral, spire, spirea, spireme, spiriferous, spirillum, spirochete, spirogyra || From L spīra : coil, spiral, twisted thing From Gr speira : spiral, coil

spite– {to look, to see}: despite, respite, spite same as spec–, spect–, spex–, spic– || From OFr –spit (comb. form) From L –spectus From –spicere (comb. form) (pp. –spectum) From specere : to look at, to behold, to see From IE *spek– : to observe

splanchn– {viscera}: splanchnic, splanchnology || From Gr splanchnon : viscera, gut

splen– {spleen}: splenectomy, splenetic, splenic, splenomegaly || From Gr splēn : spleen

splend– {to shine}: resplendent, splendid, splendor || From L splendor : brilliance, brightness, luster From splendēre : to shine, to glitter, to be bright

spond– {promise, pledge}: correspond, correspondent, despondent, respond, respondent, transponder same as spons– || From L spondēre (pp. sponsum) : to pledge, to promise solemnly, to engage To sponsor : a surety, a guarantor

spondyl– {vertebra}: spondylitis, spondylolisthesis, spondylomalacia, spondylosis || From Gr spondylos : vertebra

spons– {promise, pledge}: irresponsible, response, responsible, sponsion, sponsor same as spond– || From L sponsum, pp. of spondēre : to pledge, to promise solemnly, to engage To sponsor : a surety, a guarantor; sponsio (gen. sponsiōnis) : a solemn promise, a pledge, a guarantee

spor– {to scatter}: diaspora, exosporium, sporadic, sporangium, spore, sporophyte || From Gr spora : a sowing, a seed

spum– {foam}: spume, spumescent, spumoni || From L spūma : foam, froth From spūmare : to foam, to froth

squad– {square}: squad, squadron see also quadr– || •squadron From It. squadrone From squadro : square, fem. of quadrus : square. •squad From Fr. escouade From Sp escuadra or It squadra From VL exquadrare From L quadrare : to square From quadrum : quadrum : square From quattuor : four From IE *kwetwer– : four

st– {to stand}: arrest, contrast, cost, imprest, oust, rest (remainder), rest (to be, to remain, to keep), restive, stare decisis unrelated: rest (relaxation) same as sta– || From OFr –ster (comb. form) From L stāre : to stand From IE *stā– : to stand

sta– {to stand}: see sist–, st–, stabl–, stant–, stas–, stat–1, stat–2, stem–, stet–, stic–, stitu–, substant–

stabl– {to stand}: antidisestablishmentarianism, constable, constabulary, disestablish, establish, stabile, stability, stabilize, stable (all senses) same as sta– || From L stabulum : standing-room, quarters, stable & stabilis : firm, stable; both From stāre (pp. statum) : to stand From IE *stā– : to stand

stalact–, stalagm– {to drip}: stalactite, stalagmite || •stalactite From Gr stalaktos : trickling or dropping •stalagmite From Gr stalagmos : a dropping •both From stalassein : to let fall drop by drop, to drop or drip

stalagm– see stalact–

stals–, stalt– {to put, to place}: peristalsis, systaltic same as stol–, stle– || From Gr –staltikos From stellein : to place, to put in order

stalt– see stals–

stamin– {standing}: stamina (all senses), staminate, staminiferous, staminode stamen, stammell || From L stāmen (gen. stāminis) : thread; orig. the upright thread (warp) in a loom; thread of life spun by the Fates

stanc– see stant–

stand– {to stand}: bystander, outstanding, stand, standard, standby, standoff, standpipe, standpoint, standstill, substandard, understand, upstanding, withstand see also sta– || From ME standen From OE standan From Gmc root standan From IE *stā– : to stand

stann– {tin}: stannary, stannic, stannite, stannous || From LL stannum : tin From L stannum : a mixture of silver and lead

stant–, stanc– {to stand}: circumstance, Constance, constant, Constantine, distant, extant, happenstance, instance, instant, stance, stanch, stanchion, substance (→substant–) stanza, staunch Span. estancia same as sta– || From OFr From L stans (gen. stantis), prp. of stāre (pp. statum) : to stand From IE *stā– : to stand

staphyl– {bunch of grapes}: staphylococcus, staphyloplasty, staphylorrhaphy || From Gr staphylē : a bunch of grapes

stas– {to stand}: Anastasia, apostasy, ecstasy, homeostasis, metastasize, stasis see also sta– || From Gr stasis : a standing From histanai : to stand From IE *stā– : to stand

stat–1 {to stand}: astatine, ecstatic, hemostat, prostate, rheostat, –stat, static, statoblast, statocyst, thermostat see also sta– || From Gr statos : standing, one who is standing From histanai : to stand From IE *stā– : to stand

stat–2 {to stand}: estate, instate, reinstate, state (all senses), statement, statim (med. abbr. stat.), station, stationary, stationery, statistics, stator, statue, statuesque, stature, status, statute, statutory see also sta– || From L statum, pp. of stāre : to stand, to stand still To statuere (pp. statūtim) : to cause to stand, to place, to set up; status : a standing, a standing position; statio (gen. statiōnis) : a standing, standing still; statua : a standing image, a statue From IE *stā– : to stand

staur– {to restore, to set up again, to rebuild}: instauration, restaurant, restaurateur || From L –staurare (comb. form) : to set up, to renew, to restore

stead– {a place, to stand in place}: bedstead, homestead, instead, roadstead, stead, –stead (in place names, as Hampstead, Worstead), steadfast, steady || From ME stede : a place

stear– {fat}: stearate, stearic, stearin, stearoptene steapsin same as steato– || From Gr stear (gen. steatos) : tallow

steat(o)– {fat}: steatite, steatolysis, steatopygia, steatorrhea same as stear– || From Gr steato, gen. of stear : tallow

steep– {high, lofty}: steep, steeple, steeplechase, steeplejack || From OE steap : lofty, high

stel– {pillar, post, slab}: stele, siphonostele, solenostele || From Gr stēlē : post, slab

stell– {star}: constellation, Estelle, Stella, stellar, stellate || From L stella : star

stem– {to place, to put, to cause to stand}: epistemology, system same as sta– || •system From Gr systēma (gen systēmatos) From synistanai : to place together From syn– : together + histanai : to stand •epistemology From Gr epistēmē : knowledge From epistanai : to understand, to believe From epi : above, alongside + histanai : to stand From IE *stā– : to stand

steno– {narrow}: stenography, stenohygric, stenoky, stenophagous, stenosis, stenotopic, stenotype compare eury– || From Gr stenos : narrow

ster– {hard, solid, three-dimensional}: cholesterol, sitosterol, stere, steroid, sterol more at stereo–, sterone– || From Gr stereos : solid, cubic

stereo– {three-dimensional}: stereophonic, stereopticon, stereoscope, stereotype part of ster– || From Gr stereos : solid, hard, three–dimensional

stern– {sternum}: sternalgia, sternotomy, sternum, xiphisternum unrelated: stern || From Gr sternon : breastbone From IE *ster– : to spread out

sterone– {steroid}: androsterone, corticosterone (cortisone), progesterone, testosterone part of ster– || From –sterol From cholesterol From Gr stereos : solid, stiff

stet– {to stand}: obstetrics, stet same as sta– || •obstetrics From L obstetrix (gen. obstetrīcis) : lit., she who stands before From stāre (pp. statum) : to stand •stet From L stet : let it stand – 3rd pers. sing. pres. subj. of stāre From IE *stā– : to stand

sthen– {strength}: asthenia, asthenopia, asthenosphere, calisthenics, Demosthenes, Eratosthenes, myasthenia, sthenic || From Gr sthenos : strength

stic– {to stand}: armistice, interstice, solstice see also sta– || From MFr From L –stitium (comb. form) : a causing to stand From sistere : to cause to stand, to set, to place, to stand, to stand firm; redup. of stāre (pp. statum) : to stand From IE *stā– : to stand

stic(h)– {row, line, line of verse}: acrostic, distich, hemistich, orthostichy, pentastich, stich, stichometry, stichomythia, telestich || From Gr stichos : a line of verse or prose

stig– {to goad, to incite}: instigate see also stigm–, styl–1 || From L instīgare : to goad, to incite

stigm– {a point, to prick with a point}: anastigmat, astigmatism, physostigmine, stigma, stigmata, stigmatize see also stig–, styl–1 || From Gr stigma : a prick with a pointed instrument

still– {a drip, a drop}: distill, distillate, instill, still (distillery) || From L stillare : to drip, to drop From stilla : a drop

stin– see destin–

stinct–, stingu– {to separate}: distinct, distinctive, distinguish, extinct, extinguish, instinct || From L stinguere (pp. stinctum) : to quench, to extinguish, to annihilate •semantic relationship between the three forms is uncertain

stingu– see stinct–

stitu– {to cause to stand, to set up, to place}: constituent, constitute, constitution, destitute, institute, institution, prostitute, restitution, substitute see also sta– || From L –stituere (comb. form) (pp. –stitūtum) From statuere (pp. statūtum) : to set up, to place, to cause to stand From stāre (pp. statum) : to stand From IE *stā– : to stand

stle– {to send}: apostle, epistle same as stals–, stol– || From Gr stellein : to place, to put in order

stol– {to put, to place, to send}: apostolic, diastole, epistolary, systole same as stals–, stle– || From Gr stellein : to place, to put in order

stom– {mouth, mouthlike part, opening}: anastomosis, colostomy, ostomy, peristome, stoma, stomach, stomatic, stomatology, stomatopod, stomatous,–stome,–stomy || From Gr stoma : mouth

stor–1 {to erect, to place, to restore}: restore, storage, store same as staur– || From OFr estorer, restorer From L –staurare (comb. form) : to set up, to renew, to restore

stor–2 {inquiry, learning, historical narrative, tale}: story (all senses), storyboard, storybook, storyteller || From ME storie From OFr estoire From L historia : an inquiry, hence: the results of an inquiry From Gr historia : a learning by inquiry, narrative From histōr : knowing, learned

strab– {to squint, hence: the eye muscles}: strabismus, strabotomy see also strob– || From Gr strabizein : to squint From strabos : twisted

strain– {to squeeze, to press}: constrain, distrain, restrain, strain same as strait–, stress–, strict–, string– || From OFr –streindre (comb. form) From L stringere (pp. strictum) : to draw tight together, to bind, to tie

strait– {to squeeze, to press}: strait, straiten, straitjacket, strait-laced, strait distraught same as strain–, stress–, strict–, string– || From OFr estreit From L strictus : narrow, restricted From stringere (pp. strictum) : to draw tight together, to bind, to tie

strat–1 {military}: stratagem, strategic, strategy, stratocracy || From Gr stratos : army To stratēgema : a general (of the army)

strat–2 {to stretch out, to spread out flat, a covering, a layer}: cirrostratus, prostrate, straticulate, stratify, stratigraphy, stratocumulus, stratosphere, stratum, stratus, substrate street || From L strātus, pp. of sternere : to stretch out, to spread out, to strew, to spread To strātum : a covering, a pavement

strepto– {twisted}: streptococcus, streptokinase, streptomycin see also stroph– || From Gr streptos : twisted From strephein : to turn

stress– {to squeeze, to press}: distress, stress same as strain–, strait–, strict–, string– || From OFr estresse, destresse From L strictus : narrow, restricted From stringere (pp. strictum) : to draw tight together, to bind, to tie

strict– {to squeeze, to press}: abstriction, boa constrictor, constrict, district, restrict, strict, stricture, vasoconstrictor same as strain–, strait–, stress–, string– || From L strictus : narrow, restricted From stringere (pp. strictum) : to draw tight together, to bind, to tie

strid– {harsh, shrill}: strident, stridor, stridulate, stridulous unrelated: stride || From L strīdēre : to make a harsh noise, to creak, to grate To strīdor : a harsh noise: creaking, grating

string– {to squeeze, to press}: astringent, stringent same as strain–, strait–, stress–, strict– || From L stringere (pp. strictum) : to draw tight together, to bind, to tie

strob– {to whirl, whirlwind}: strobe, strobila, strobile, strobilus, stroboscope see also strab– || From Gr strobos : a twisting around, a whirlwind

stroph– {a turn, a twist}: anastrophe, antistrophe, apostrophe, catastrophe, diastrophism, exstrophy, strophe see also strepto– || From Gr strophē : a turning, a twist From strephein : to turn

stru– {to build}: construe, instrument destroy same as struct– || From OFr From L –struere (comb. form) (pp. –structum) From struere (pp. structum) : to put together, to put in order, to pile up, to build, to erect, to arrange, to prepare

struct– {to build}: construct, destruction, infrastructure, instruct, obstruct, restructure, self-destruct, structure, substruction, superstructure Russ. perestroika same as stru– || From L structum, pp. of struere : to put together, to put in order, to pile up, to build, to erect, to arrange, to prepare

stud– {to study}: student, studio, studious, study, understudy étude, etui || From L studēre : to be eager, to be earnest, to take pains, to strive after, to be busy with, to apply oneself To studium : zeal, eagerness, striving •étude From Fr studyetui From Fr From ult. studium

stup– {to stun, to be senseless}: stupefy, stupendous, stupid, stupor || From L stupēre : to be stunned, to be struck senseless, to be astounded To stupidus : stunned, senseless, stupid

styl–1 {point, pointed instrument, writing instrument, writing style, style}: style, stylet, stylish, stylist, stylize, stylograph, stylus stiletto see also stig–, stigm– || From L stilus : a pointed instrument used by the Romans wrote on waxen tablets (stylus), hence: a writing, a written composition, a mode of writing or speaking, style •spelling prob. influenced by unrelated Gr stylos : pillar

styl–2 {pillar, column}: amphistylar, astylar, epistyle, hypostyle, peristyle, prostyle, stylite, stylobate || From Gr stylos : pillar

suad–, suag–, suas–, suav– {sweet, pleasant}: assuage, assuasive, dissuade, persuade, persuasion, suasion, suave soave || From L suāvis : sweet, pleasant, agreeable, delightful To suādēre (pp. suāsum) : to present in a pleasing manner, hence: to recommend, to advise To suāsio (gen. suāsiōnis) : recommending, advice

suag– see suad–

suas– see suad–

suav– see suad–

substanc– see substant–

substant–, substanc– {substance, essence, means of subsistence}: consubstantiation, substance, substantial, substantiate, substantive, transubstantiation part of stant– || From L substantia From sub : under, below + stāre (pp. statum) : to stand From IE *stā– : to stand

suct– {to suck}: suction, suctorial || From L suctum, pp. of sūgere : to suck

sud– {sweat}: exude, sudatorium, sudatory, sudoriferous, sudorific, transude || From L sūdor : sweat To sūdare : to sweat To sūdātōrium : a sweating-bath

sue– {to follow}: ensue, pursue, sue same as secu–, sequ–, suit– || From OFr –suir, –suivre (comb. forms) From VL –sequere (comb. form) From L sequi (pp. secūtus) : to follow, to accompany, to ensue

suet– {to become accustomed}: consuetude, desuetude, mansuetude unrelated: suet see also custom– || From L suētum, pp. of suescere : to become accustomed

sui– {self}: suicide, sui generis, sui juris Fr. soi same as se– || From L suī, gen. of : himself, herself, itself, themselves

suit– {to follow, a sequence}: lawsuit, pursuit, suit (all senses), suitable, suitcase, suite, suitor same as secu–, sequ–, sue– || From OFr suite : a pursuit, suit [action of suing], suit [set of garments], sequence From VL sequita, fem. pp. of sequere From L sequi (pp. secūtus) : to follow, to accompany, to ensue

sul– see consul–

sult– {to jump}: desultory, exult, insult, result unrelated: consult same as sal–1, salt–, sault–, sil–1 || From L –sultare (freq. comb. form) From L salīre (pp. saltum) : to leap, to spring To saltus : a leap, a spring From IE *sel– : to jump

sum– {to take}: assume, assumption, consume, presume, presumptuous, resume, résumé, subsume, sumptuary, sumptuous see also em– || From L sūmere (pp. sumptum) : to take, to choose, to obtain, to take upon oneself, to assume From sub : under, below + emere : to take, to buy, to purchase

summ– {highest, top level}: consummate, summa, summa cum laude, summarize, summary, summation, summit, summum bonum consommé, sum superlative of supr– || From L adj. summus, noun summa : highest, at the top From superl. of superus : above, over

sundr– {apart, separated}: asunder, sunder, sundry || From ME sundren From OE sundrian From sundor : asunder From Gmc root

super– {above, over}: insuperable, super, superannuated, superb, supercargo, supercharge, supercilious, superficial, superfluous, superheterodyne, superimpose, superintendent, superior, superjacent, superlative, supernal, supernumerary, superscript, supersede, superstition, superstructure, supervene, supervise supremacy, supreme part of supr– || From L superus, super– : above, situated above, upper; compar. superior, superl. suprēmus & summus

supr– see super–, supra– same as sur–2 superlative forms: summ–, supreme compare infr– see also Appendix B || From L superus, super– : above, situated above, upper; compar. superior, superl. suprēmus & summus

supra– {over, above, beyond}: supralapsarian, supraliminal, supranational, suprarenal soprano part of supr– || From L suprā, adv. and prep. form of super : above, over

sur–1 {certain, secure}: assurance, assure, ensure, insurance, insure, reassure, sure, sure-fire, sure-footed, surely, surety || From OFr seur From L sēcūrus : free from care From (gen. suī) : himself, herself, itself, apart from + cura : care, concern, attention, trouble

sur–2 {over, beyond}: insurmountable, surcharge, surcoat, surface, surfeit, surmount, surname, surpass, surplus, surprise, surrealism, surrender, surtax, surveillance, survey, survive same as supr– || From OFr sur–, sour– From L super, suprā : over, above

sur–3 {below, under, from under}: surreal, surrender, surreptitious, surrogate same as sub– : under, used before –r || From L sub– used before stems beginning with r

surd– {insensible, irrational}: absurd, surd || From L surdus : deaf, speechless & absurdus : not to be heard of, not sensible

surg– {to rise up}: assurgent, insurgent, resurgent, surge same as surrect– see also source– || From L surgere (pp. surrectum) : to rise, to get up, to stand up From sub– : under, below + regere : to direct

surrect– {to rise up}: insurrection, resurrection comb. of sub– + rect– same as surg– see also source– || From L surrectum, pp. of surgere : to rise, to get up, to stand up From sub– : under, below + regere : to direct

swain– {youth, shepherd, attendant}: boatswain, coxswain, swain || From ME swein From ON sveinn : boy, servant; akin to OE swan : shepherd, peasant youth

syc– {fig}: syconium, sycophant, sycosis unrelated: sycamore || From Gr sykos : fig

sylv– {forest}: Pennsylvania, sylvan, Sylvester, Sylvia, Transylvania sylph || From L silva : a wood, a forest To Silvānus : god of woods and forests

sym– see syn–

syn–, sym– {with, together}: asymmetric, asymptote, idiosyncrasy, symbiosis, symbol, symmetry, sympathy, symphony, symposium, symptom, synagogue, synapse, synchronize, syncopate, syndicate, syndrome, synergy, synod, synonym, synopsis, syntax, synthesis, synthetic more at synchro– || From Gr syn : with, together, at the same time. By assimilation, syn– becomes syl– before l; sym– before b, m, p; in some cases sys– before h, s; in some cases sy– before s.

synchro– {timed together, keeping the same time and/or speed}: synchro, synchroscope, synchrotron comb. of syn– + chron– || From Gr synchronos : contemporary From syn : with, together + chronos : time

Unattested, hypothesized
† Unknown origin

288 entries found.

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