The Cognātarium

vac– {empty}: evacuate, vacancy, vacant, vacate, vacation, vacuole, vacuous, vacuum see also van–1, vast–, void– compare plen– || From L vacuus (neut. vacuum) : empty, void, free from, without, worthless, useless, vain

vacc– {cow}: vaccine, vaccinia Span. vaca Fr. vache || From L vacca : cow From

vad– {to go}: evade, invade, pervade, Quo Vadis, vade mecum same as vas–1 compare ven–1 || From L vādere : to go, to rush, to hasten

vag– {to wander}: divagate, extravagant, extravaganza, vagabond, vagary, vague, vagus, vasovagus || From L vagus : wandering To vagari : to wander to, to ramble

vagin– {sheath}: evaginate, invaginate, vagina, vaginismus || From L vagina : sheath, scabbard

vail– {to be strong, to be worth}: avail, available, countervail, prevail same as val–1, vale– || From ME –vailen (comb. form) From OFr valoir : to be worth From L valēre : to be strong, vigorous, in good health; to have force, to prevail

val–1 {strength, worth, value}: ad valorem, ambivalent, convalesce, covalence, devaluate, equivalent, evaluate, invalid, invaluable, prevalent, valence, Valentine, Valerie, valetudinarian, valiant, valid, validate, valor, valuable, value same as vail–, vale– || From L valēre : to be strong, vigorous, in good health; to have force, to prevail

val–2 {warriors slain in battle}: Valhalla, Valkyrie || From ON valr : warriors slain in battle

vale– {to be strong, to be well, hence: farewell}: vale, valediction, valedictorian same as vail–, val–1 || From L vale : farewell From imper. of valēre : to be well; to have force, to be strong

van–1 {empty}: evanescent, vanish, vanity vain, vaunt see also vac–, vast–, void– || From L vānus : empty, void, vain, worthless, meaningless, ostentatious, boastful To vānitās : emptiness, vanity, boasting

van–2 {forward, front}: advance, advantage, avant-garde, van [short for vanguard], vanguard, vantage point vamp [shoe part] Ital. avanti Fr. avant || From OFr avant : before & avancer : to go forward From L ab– (prefix) : from, away from + ante : before, in front

vap– {steam, vapor}: evaporate, vapor, vaporize Ital. vaporetto || From L vapor : vapor, steam; akin to vapidus : spoiled, flat, vapid

var– {to bend}: vara, varus see also varic–1 || From L vārus : knock-kneed, crooked, bent

vari– {difference}: variable, variance, variant, variation, varicolored, variegated, varietal, various, vary || From L varius : manifold, various, diverse To variare : to vary, to variegate, to diversify; varietas : variety, diversity

varic–1 {to spread apart, to straddle}: divaricate, prevaricate see also var– || From L vāricare : to stand with the feet apart, to straddle From vāricus : straddling From vārus : knock-kneed, crooked

varic–2 {varicose vein}: varicocele, varicose, varicosis, varicotomy varix || From L varicis, gen. of varix : varicose vein

vas–1 {to go}: evasive, invasion, pervasive same as vad– || From L vāsum, pp. of vādere : to go, to rush, to hasten

vas–2 {vessel}: cardiovascular, vascular, vasculum, vas deferens, vase, vasectomy, vasoconstrictor, vasodilator || From L vās : vessel, receptacle To dim. vasculum : small vessel

vast– {empty}: devastate, vast waste see also vac–, van–1, void– || From L vastus : empty, waste, deserted, desolate To vastare : to lay waste, to devastate

vatic– {prophet}: vatic, Vatican, vaticinal, vaticinate || From L vātes : prophet, soothsayer To vāticinari : to prophesy

vect– {to carry}: advection, convection, evective, invective, vector inveigh, vehicle || From L vectum, pp. of vehere : to carry, to convey To vector : carrier, bearer; vectio : a carrying, a conveyance; vehiculum : a conveyance

veget– {lively, to enliven, to grow}: vegetable, vegetal, vegetarian, vegetate, vegetation see also vigil–, vigor– || From L vegetāre : to enliven From vegetus : lively, vigorous, fresh From vegere : to stir up, to quicken

veill– {to be awake, to watch}: reveille, surveillance same as vigil– || From Fr veiller From L vigilare (prp. vigilans) : to be awake, to keep watch From vigil : wakeful, watchful

vel–1 {veil, covering}: revelation, velamen, velar, velate, velum reveal, veil || From L vēla (neut. pl. of vēlum) : covering, awning, curtain, sail To vēlāmen : covering, garment From IE *weg– : to weave, textile

vel–2 {shaggy hair}: Velcro™, velour, velouté, velour, velutinous, velvet || From L villus : shaggy hair To villosus : shaggy, hairy

vel–3 {calf, calfskin}: vellum veal see also vitell– || From OFr veel From L vitulus : bull calf (dim. vitellus : little calf)

veloc– {speed, rapidity}: veloce, velocipede, velocity velodrome || From L vēlōcis, gen. of vēlox : swift, rapid To vēlōcitās : quickness, rapidity

velop– {to wrap}: develop, envelop, envelope || From OFr voluper, voloper : to wrap From † possibly of Celtic origin

ven–1 {to come}: avenue, contravene, convene, convenient, coven, covenant, intervene, parvenu, prevenient, provenance, provenience, revenant, revenue, souvenir, supervene, venire facias, venue “veni, vidi, vici” unrelated: provender same as vent–1 @compare vad– || From L venire : to come

ven–2 {love}: venerable, venerate, venereal, venery, venial, Venus || From L venus (gen. veneris) : love To venia : grace, favor

ven–3 {poison, drug}: antivenin, venin, venom || From OFr venim (var. of venen) From L venenum : drug, poison, love potion

ven–4, vend– {to sell, to be for sale}: venal, vend, vendee, vendition, vendor, vendue || From L vēnum : to be sold & vendere From vēnum + dare : to give for sale

ven–5 {to hunt [for game]}: venatic, venison || From L vēnaticus : of hunting From vēnātus : hunting, the chase From vēnor : to hunt To vēnātio : the hunt

ven–6 {vein}: intravenous, vena cava, venipuncture, venous || From L vēna : vein

vend– see ven–4

venge– {revenge}: avenge, revenge, vengeance, vengeful revanchism same as vindic– || From OFr venger : to avenge From L vindicare

vent–1 {to come}: advent, adventitious, adventure, circumvent, convent, convention, conventional, event, eventually, eventuate, invent, invention, inventory, peradventure, prevent, subvention same as ven–1 || From L ventum, pp. of venire : to come

vent–2 {wind}: vent, ventage, ventail, ventifact, ventilate || From L ventus : wind To ventilare : to wave, to fan, to brandish in the air

ventr– {abdomen}: venter, ventral, ventricle, ventricose, ventriloquist || From L venter (gen. ventris) : the belly, the stomach

ver–1 {truth}: aver, cinéma vérité, in vino veritas, Vera, veracity, verdict, veridical, verify, verily, verisimilitude, veritable, Veronica, very || From L vērus : true, real, genuine, just, reasonable To vēritās : truthfulness & vērum : the truth, reality

ver–2 see rever–

ver–3 see sever–2

verb– {word}: adverb, proverb, verb, verbal, verbalize, verbatim, verbiage, verbigeration, verbose, verbum sat sapienti est unrelated: verbena || From L verb : word To verbōsus : wordy, verbose

verd– {green}: biliverdin, Cape Verde, Mesa Verde, paloverde, verdant, verdigris, verdure Vermont same as vir–3 || From OFr verd : green From VL virdis From L viridis : green From virīre : to be green

verg– {to bend, to turn}: converge, diverge, verge (to tend or incline) || From L vergere : to turn, to bend, to be inclined

verm– {worm}: vermicelli, vermicide, vermicular, vermiculite, vermiform, vermifuge, Vermilingua, vermilion, vermin varmint || From OFr vermine From L vermis : worm To dim. vermiculus : small worm, grub

vern– {springtime}: Laverne, vernal, vernation, Vernon compare estiv–, hibern– || From L vernālis : belonging to spring From vernus : of spring, spring-like From vēr : spring

vers– {to turn}: adversary, adverse, adversity, animadversion, anniversary, anteversion, averse, aversion, controversy, conversant, conversation, converse, conversion, divers, diverse, diversify, diversion, inverse, obverse, perverse, perversion, retroversion, reverse, reversion, subversion, subversive, tergiversate, transverse, traverse, universal, universe, university, versatile, verse, version, verso, versus, vice versa varsity same as vert– compare rect– || From L versus : a turning From versum, pp of vertere : to turn, to turn around To freq. verso (or vorso) : to turn about often, to twist round; versātilis : turning round, revolving

vert– {to turn}: advert, advertise, avert, controvert, convert, convertible, divert, divertissement, evert, extrovert, inadvertent, incontrovertible, introvert, invert, invertebrate, obvert, pervert, revert, subvert, vertebra, vertebrate, vertex, vertical, vertiginous, vertigo divorce, vortex same as vers– || From L vertere : to turn, to turn around (pp. versum) To vertex (or vortex) : a whirl, the crown of the head; vertīgo : a turning around, a whirling

vesic– {bladder}: vesica, vesical, vesicant, vesicle, vesicular || From L vēsīca : bladder, bladder-like object To dim. vēsīcula : a small bladder

vesp– {wasp}: vespiary, vespid, vespine It. vespa || From L vespa : wasp

vesper– {evening}: vesper, vesperal, Vespers, vespertilionid, vespertine || From L vesper : evening To vespertīnus : of evening

vest– {clothing}: divest, divestiture, invest, investiture, transvestite, travesty, vest, vested, vestment, vestry unrelated: vestibule || L vestis : garment, covering, blanket

vesta– {Vesta, Roman goddess of the hearth}: Vesta, vestal || From L Vesta : goddess of the hearth and domestic life

vestig– {footprint, trace}: investigate, vestige, vestigial || From L vestīgium : footprint, track, trace To vestīgare : to track, to trace

veter– {old}: inveterate, veteran unrelated: veterinary || From L veteris, gen. of vetus : old, ancient To veterānus : old, veteran

vexill– {a standard, a flag}: vexillary, vexillate, vexillology, vexillum || From L vexillum : a standard, a flag From dim. of vēlum : veil, covering, awning, curtain From IE *weg– : to weave, textile

vey– see voy–1, voy–2

vi–1 {road, path, way}: deviate, devious, impervious, obviate, obvious, pervious, previous, trivial, via, Via Appia, Via Dolorosa, viaduct same as voy–1 || From L via : way, road, highway, way (figuratively)

vi–2 {life}: viable, viand Fr. vie same as vit–, viv– || From Fr vie From L vīta : life From vīvere (pp. victum) : to live, to be alive From IE *gwei–, *gweiə– : to live

vi–3 {to invite, to challenge}: invite, vie || From L invītare : to invite To OFr envier : to invite, to vie in games To ME aphetic vien : to vie

vibr– {to shake, to vibrate}: vibraculum, vibrant, vibraphone, vibrate, vibrato, vibrio, vibrissa || From L vibrare (prp. vibrans) : to cause vibration, to shake, to tremble, to vibrate

vic–1 {fault, offense}: vice (evil), vicious vitiate || From ME vice From OFr From L vitium : fault, defect, blemish To vitiare : to injure, to damage To vitiōsus : faulty, defective, bad, morally corrupt, wicked

vic–2 {change, to substitute}: vicar, vicariate, vicarious, vice (instead of), vice admiral, vice president, viceregal, viceroy, vice versa, vicissitude viscount || From L vice From vicis : change, interchange, alternate To vīcārius : taking another’s place, substituted, vicarious; vicissitudō : change, alteration

vic–3 {twenty}: vicenary, vicennial || From L vīciēs : twenty times From vīginti : twenty

vicin– {neighbor}: vicinage, vicinal, vicinity || From L vīcīnus : near, neighboring ( From vīcus : district or quarter of a town, village, hamlet) To vīcīnitās : neighborhood, vicinity

vict– {to conquer}: convict, conviction, evict, victor, Victor, Victoria, victorious, victory unrelated: victim same as vinc– || From L victum, pp. of vinco : to conquer, to vanquish To victor : victor, conqueror; victōria : victory

vid– {to see}: evidence, evident, invidious, Montevideo, provide, providence, quod vide (abbr. q.v.), videlicet (abbr. viz.), video, vidicon, “veni, vidi, vici” belvedere same as view–, vis–, voy–2 || From L vidēre (pp. vīsum, 1st pers. sing. video) : to see, to perceive

view– {to see}: interview, preview, purview, review, view, viewpoint déjà vu, revue same as vid–, vis–, voy–2 || From ME vewe From OFr veue From veoir : to see From L vidēre : to see

vigil– {alert, lively, watchful}: vigil, vigilant, vigilante same as veill– see also veget–, vigor– || From L vigilare (prp. vigilans) : to be awake, to keep watch From vigil : wakeful, watchful

vigor– {vigor, force, energy}: invigorate, vigor, vigoroso, vigorous ravigote see also veget–, veill–, vigil– || From L vigor : vigor, energy From vigēre : to be vigorous, to thrive, to flourish

vil– {cheap, worthless, base}: revile, vile, vilify, vilipend || From L vīlis : cheap, worth little

vill–1 {country house, farm}: villa, village, villain, villainy, villein, –ville (suffix for town names) || From L villa : country house, estate, farm

vill–2 {shaggy hair, fleece, wool}: microvillus, villiform, villous, villus || From L villus : shaggy hair

vin–1, vint– {vine, wine}: in vino veritas, vinaigrette, vine, vinegar, vineyard, viniculture, Vinland, vin rosé, vintage, vintner, vinyl vignette Ital., Sp. vino Fr. vin Ger. Wein || From L vīnum : wine To vīnea : vineyard; vīnētum : vinyard; vīnitor : vinedresser

vin–2 {friend}: Alvin, Irvin, Marvin, Melvin, Mervin same as win– || From OHG wini : friend

vinc– {to conquer}: convince, evince, in hoc signo vinces, invincible, province, Vincent, vincible vanquish, “veni, vidi, vici” same as vict– || From L vincere (pp. victum) : to conquer, to vanquish

vindic– {revenge}: vindicate, vindictive vendetta part of dic–1 same as venge– || From L vindicare : to lay a legal claim From vim From † + dīcere : to speak

vint– see vin–1

viol–1 {force}: inviolable, inviolate, violate, violent unrelated: violet || From L violare : to use violence, to violate, to injure ( To violentus : violent, furious) From vis : force, power, strength

viol–2 {a family of stringed instruments}: viol, viola, violin, violoncello (hence: cello), violone unrelated: violet || From It viol From OProv viula : viol

vir–1 {man, male}: triumvirate, virago, virile, virtue, virtuoso, virtuous || From L vir : man, male adult person To virilis : manly, male; virtus : manliness, worth, virtue

vir–2 {poison}: viral, viricide, virion, virology, virulent, virus || From L vīrus : slimy liquid, poison, venom To vīrulentus : poisonous

vir–3 {green}: vireo, virescence, viridescent, viridian same as verd– || From L viridis : green From virīre : to be green

virg– {green twig, rod, stick}: virga, virgate, virgulate, virgule verge (edge, brink) unrelated: Virgil, virgin || From L virga : green twig, rod, stick To dim. virgula : little twig, small rod

vis– {to see}: advise, envisage, improvise, invisible, provision, proviso, revise, supervise, television, visa, visage, vis-à-vis, visible, vision, visit, visor, vista, visual advice same as vid–, view–, voy–2 || From L visum, pp. of vidēre : to see To vīsio (gen. vīsiōnis) : a seeing, view; vīsere : to look at carefully, to contemplate To vīsitare : to see often, to visit

visc– {birdlime, sticky substance}: viscid, viscometer, viscose, viscosity, viscous || From L viscum : mistletoe, birdlime made from mistletoe berries

viscer– {internal body organs, intestines}: eviscerate, viscera, visceral, visceromotor || From L visceris, gen. of viscus (pl. viscera) : internal organs of the body

vit– {life}: curriculum vitae, La Dolce Vita, revitalize, vital, vitality, vitamin victual same as vi–2, viv– || From L vīta : life From vīvere (pp. victum) : to live, to be alive To victus : manner of life, means of life, food To victuālis : pertaining to food From IE *gwei–, *gweiə– : to live

vitell– {egg yolk}: vitellin, vitelline, vitellus see also vel–3 || From L vitellus : egg yolk; orig. a little calf, as a term of endearment; From dim. of vitulus : bull-calf

vitr– {glass}: vitreous, vitrescent, vitrify, vitriol, vitriolic, in vitro || From L vitrum : glass To vitreus : made of glass To LL vitreolus : glassy To ML vitriolum : vitriol (from its glassy appearance)

viv– {to live, living, lively}: bon vivant, convivial, modus vivendi, redivivus, revive, survive, viva!, vivace, vivacious, Vivian, vivid, vivify, viviparous, vivisection same as vi–2, vit– || From L vīvere : to live, to be alive To vīvus : alive; vīvidus : full of life, animated; vīvax (gen. vīvācis) : brisk, lively From IE *gwei–, *gweiə– : to live

voc– {voice, to call, to summon}: advocate, agent provocateur, avocation, convocation, equivocal, equivocate, evocative, invocation, irrevocable, provocative, sotto voce, vocable, vocabulary, vocal, vocation, vocative, vociferous voice, vowel same as vok–, vouch–, vox– || From L vōcis, gen. of vox : voice To vōcālis : vocal; vocare : to call, to summon To vocātio : a summoning, a calling; vocābulum : a name, an appellation

void– {empty}: avoid, devoid, void see also vac–, van–1, vast– || From ME voide From OFr vuide From VL vocitus for L vocīvus, var. of vacīvus : empty From vacare : to be empty, void

vok– {to call, to summon}: evoke, invoke, provoke, revoke same as voc–, vouch–, vox– || From ME –voken (comb. form) From MFr –voquer From L vocare : to call, to summon

vol–1 {to fly}: volant, Volare, volatile, vole (card games), volitation, volley, volleyball || From L volare : to fly To volātilis : winged, flying, fleeting, transitory

vol–2 {to will, to wish}: benevolent, Deo Volente, involuntary, malevolent, volition, voluntary, volunteer || From L volo : I wish To voluntās : wish, will, inclination To voluntāris : voluntary

volcan–, vulcan– {Vulcan, god of fire}: volcanic, volcano, volcanology, vulcanian, vulcanism, vulcanize, vulcanology || From L Volcānus, Vulcānus : Vulcan, Roman god of fire and metalworking

volt–1 {volt, unit of electromotive force; after Alessandro Volta}: photovoltaic, volt, voltage, voltaic, voltmeter see also Appendix F || From Alessandro Volta (1745–1827), Italian physicist who worked with electricity

volt–2 see volv–

volu– see volv–

volv–, volt–2, volu– {to turn, to roll}: convolution, demivolt, devolution, devolve, evolution, evolve, intervolve, involucre, involute, involve, revolution, revolve, volte-face, voluble, volume, voluminous, Volvo™ vault, vulva || From L volvere (1st pers. sing. volvo, pp. volūtum) : to roll, to wind, to turn around To volūmen : a roll, hence: a scroll, a book; volūbilis : rolling, revolving, changeable

vor– {to devour}: carnivorous, herbivore, omnivorous, voracious devour || From L vorare : to eat greedily, to devour To vorax (gen. vorācis) : gluttonous, voracious

vot– {to speak solemnly, to vow}: devote, devotion, votary, vote, votive devout || From L vōtum, pp. of vovēre : to vow, to promise To vōtīvus : relating to a vow, votive; vōtum : a vow

vouch– {to speak, to call}: vouch, voucher, vouchsafe same as voc–, vok–, vox– || From ME vouchen From OFr vocher From L vocare : to call, to summon From vox : voice

vox– {voice}: Audiovox™, Magnavox™, vox populi same as voc–, vok–, vouch– || From L vox : voice, a call To vocare : to call, to summon

voy–1, vey–1 {road, way}: convey, conveyor, convoy, envoy, voyage invoice same as vi–1 || From OFr stem –voier : travel From VL –viare From L via : road, way, journey • voyage From OFr veiage From LL viaticum : journey From LL viaticum From viaticus From via)

voy–2, vey–2 {to see}: clairvoyance, purvey, survey, voyeur envy, voila! same as vid–, view–, vis– || From OFr voir or veirer : to see From L vidēre : to see, to perceive

vulcan– see volcan–

vulg– {common, ordinary, public}: divulge, vulgar, Vulgate || From L vulgāris From vulgus, volgus : the common people, the masses, the public To vulgo : to make common, to make public, to spread

vulner– {wound, injury}: vulnerable, vulnerary || From L vulnerare : to wound, to injure From vulnus : a wound

vuls– {to pluck, to pull}: avulse, convulse, evulsion, revulsion || From L vulsum, pp. of vellere : to pluck, to pull

Unattested, hypothesized
† Unknown origin

112 entries found.

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